PSY 5130 Week 4 Discussion

Attachments

Learning Objectives

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

Understand how kinds of temperament are associated with principles of reciprocal relationships and
goodness of �it.

Outline Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.

Articulate and evaluate the theoretical ideas of Marcia and Levinson.

Compare and contrast trait and type theories and how they each assess personality.

Outline the evidence for the emergence of self-awareness and summarize demographic differences in
self-esteem.

De�ine ethnic identity and understand how it in�luences identity development.

11Personality, the Self, and MoralDevelopment

iStock/Thinkstock

Distinguish among behaviors that are indicative of different stages of moral development.

Prologue

Try for a moment to describe a person without referring to physical characteristics. Words such as “shy,” “patient,” or
“easygoing” may come to mind. These are personal and social traits, which are part of personality. Psychologists think of
personality as descriptions that are both consistent and individually distinctive for each person. Even if a person’s
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors consistently express turmoil and change, we may describe that person with words like
“�lighty,” “impulsive,” or “undependable.” Therefore, personality consists of stable or enduring patterns of thoughts,
feelings, and, ultimately, behaviors.

Furthermore, noticing that a person did a kind thing is different from noticing that a person is kind. The latter implies a
sense of permanence. When a shy person acts in a more assertive manner, most people recognize the behavior as out
of character—different from his or her typical personality. But if the “shy” person persists in being more assertive, we
might ask whether the person is still inherently shy or whether that person’s personality has truly changed. The most
famous American talk show host of the 1970s and 1980s, Johnny Carson, always described himself as shy. How can that
be?

This chapter will explore how psychologists view these differences and various theories that attempt to describe how
our personalities develop. Traditional Freudian theory, introduced in Chapter 2, which focused on the id, ego, and
superego, has given way to science-based trait theories, which suggest that personality remains fairly stable during
adulthood. We will also look at the emergence of self, identity, moral development, and how we evaluate and become
aware of ourselves. This focus on personality and identity development will serve as an introduction to how we de�ine
ourselves according to gender, relationships, and other social roles, which will be explored in the following chapters.

Purestock/Thinkstock

Temperament describes characteristics that
are relatively consistent during the early
years of life. Neonates can demonstrate
differences in temperament.

11.1 Early Personality Development: Temperament and the Emergent Self

In Chapter 10 we discussed the emergence of emotions, which are generally regarded as temporary states or moods. In
addition to transitory states, we exhibit a characteristic style of arousal, or pattern of experiencing the world.
Psychologists use the term temperament to describe those characteristics that are relatively enduring and consistent
during the early years of life. It previews personality and includes how easily we become emotionally aroused, how long
the arousal persists, and how easily it fades. An “easy” baby can be fussy or unhappy at times but still generally handles
distress well and is relatively predictable; an “active” baby does not always engage in prolonged activity but can still be
described as mostly energetic and vigorous. Regardless of any transient emotions, “easy” and “active” describe more
consistent traits—temperament.

Differences in temperament can be observed in neonates—even
during fetal development—and remain relatively stable across
various situations (Casalin, Luyten, Vliegen, & Meurs, 2012). There is
strong evidence that genetics and biology in�luence temperament,
including in factors related to emotions, motor activity, self-
regulation, and attention. Together, these characteristics interact with
the environment and begin to de�ine personality, the topic of the
remainder of this chapter (Ivorra et al., 2010; Posner, Rothbart, &
Sheese, 2007; Rothbart, 2007). Temperament is the mostly biological
foundation upon which experiences with the environment build
personality. There is also evidence that culture and a parent’s
personality affect temperament (Laxman et al., 2013). For instance,
although cultural differences decline with age, infants born in the
United States score relatively high in measures of surgency, a
psychological measure that encompasses extraversion, con�idence,
and independence. These characteristics tend to be valued in more
individualistic countries. U.S. infants are relatively better at managing
feelings of frustration and other negative emotions, too (Slobodskaya,
Garstein, Nakagawa, & Putnam, 2013).

Categories of Infant Temperament

In 1977, researchers Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess offered the �irst widely accepted conceptual model of
temperament. They followed a group of 141 U.S. infants into adulthood. Each person was rated on several dimensions,
including activity level, adaptability, attention span, and mood. Multiple interviews and observations with parents and
children revealed that infant emotional reactivity could be classi�ied according to one of three types of temperament
(Thomas & Chess, 1977).

Infants with an easy temperament are generally happy. They �ind ways to self-soothe and establish regular
body rhythms of sleeping, eating, and elimination. They adapt relatively easily to change. About 40% of children
�it this category.
Infants with a dif�icult temperament often display intensely negative reactions. They have dif�iculty
establishing regular routines and do not adapt well to new experiences. About 10% of children �it this category.
About 15% of infants are slow to warm up. They are relatively less active with somewhat regular biological
rhythms for activities like sleep and elimination. They have mild to moderate reactions to new experiences, but
are notably more accepting than dif�icult children.
About 35% of children show a combination of characteristics and do not clearly �it any of the categories
(Thomas & Chess, 1977; Thomas, Chess, & Birch, 1968).

The differences observed during infancy are found to be moderately stable throughout childhood. Longitudinal
research has found that children who are classi�ied as easy during infancy have fewer adjustment problems in school
than those who are identi�ied as dif�icult. Dif�icult children are comparatively more likely to be aggressive and to
withdraw from social interactions. Slow-to-warm-up infants exhibit relatively smooth developmental adjustment during
infancy, but during elementary school they are found to have more problems than easy children. In general, children
who have emotional and behavioral problems in later childhood have temperament pro�iles that include a lower degree

Critical Thinking

If a parent has an active infant, but comes
home exhausted from work, what advice
would you offer? What about an exhausted
parent and a quiet infant?

of emotional stability and relatively poor self-regulatory skills (Althoff et al., 2012; Caspi & Silva, 1995; Chess & Thomas,
1984; De Pauw & Mervielde, 2011).

Other models of temperament focus less on biological rhythms, but they still
emphasize attention, activity, and emotionality. Research by Rothbart and her
colleagues has been particularly instrumental in focusing on variations in
reactivity and self-regulation, including intensity of motor and emotional
responses, self-soothing behaviors, and self-control. Accordingly, researchers
often explore how easily they can elicit temper tantrums and whether
children can be easily calmed (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003; Rothbart, Ahadi, &
Evans, 2000; Rothbart & Bates, 2006).

Goodness of Fit

The match between temperament and environmental demands is referred to as goodness of �it. For instance, the
diagnosis of some attention disorders is often dependent on individual parenting style and culture. Some parents and
educators may tolerate certain kinds of off-task behavior more than others. The amount of patience adults display
affects how children respond. Fussy infants become more dif�icult toddlers when they are faced with parents who
generally impose harsher restrictions. These parents become more easily stressed, more negative, and more hostile;
they might engage in inconsistent discipline practices and aggravate the child’s behavior problems. In contrast, parents
who show support and patience can have a signi�icant positive effect on children’s behavior (Paulussen-Hoogeboom,
Stams, Hermans, & Peetsma, 2007; Raikes, Robinson, Bradley, Raikes, & Ayoub, 2007). In other words, the temperament
of some children may be a better or poorer �it than others for particular situations. Children’s adjustment may
therefore be linked to biological temperament acting on �it.

To counteract what might be poor goodness of �it, dif�icult children bene�it from warm, sensitive parents who have
consistent rules for behavior and make reasonable demands. Less active infants and toddlers bene�it from parents who
will engage them—asking questions, exploring, naming objects. Because active, outgoing children will naturally self-
stimulate, for them, intrusive adult involvement may limit exploratory behavior and innate curiosity. Many parents fail to
recognize when they are not responding according to their children’s temperament. In these instances, parenting
programs that include directed interventions to identify emotions appear to be helpful. In one study that focused on
these techniques, children were able to engage in a higher level of social behavior. Additionally, by learning how to
better recognize emotional cues in their children, parents also became more aware of their own emotional regulation
(Wilson, Havighurst, & Harley, 2012).

Section Review

What is the association between infant temperament and personality development? Describe three different
types of infant temperament, including implications for parenting and goodness of �it.

11.2 Psychosocial Foundations of Personality Development

Like issues that arise with goodness of �it, it is not always easy to �ind an appropriate balance between being patient and
responsive, and imposing necessary restrictions on what appears to be normal developmental needs. How often should
dif�icult babies be held? How much freedom should teenagers be given to express themselves? Erikson’s theory of
psychosocial development outlines these issues. His theory of how social interactions affect personality development
remains a historical benchmark from which contemporary theory has evolved. In many ways, Erik Erikson is to
psychosocial development what Piaget is to cognitive development. And like Piaget, psychologists continue to �ind
Erikson’s ideas practical and worthwhile. Part of Erikson’s theory concerns the development of the self, which is a
conceptualization of how we evaluate our thoughts and attitudes about ourselves. Erikson stressed how the self
develops as a function of the way we constantly interact with society.

Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erikson was in�luenced by Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Both of these psychology pioneers emphasized the
importance of early development on later personality and behavior. However, while Freud felt early development was
largely a function of sexual con�lict, Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development focused on social in�luences during
the lifespan (Erikson, 1950/1993). According to Erikson, each developmental period is marked by a psychosocial
challenge that can have either a favorable or an unfavorable outcome. The desired outcome provides opportunity for
growth, whereas the alternative inhibits personality growth. The settlement of each stage does not have an all-or-none
effect on personality development; there are degrees of resolution. Although Erikson proposed general age ranges for
his stages, there is no �irm consensus on when each stage begins and ends.

Basic Trust Versus Mistrust (birth to 1 year old): Erikson proposed that the fundamental challenge of infancy
concerns an infant’s dependency needs and parental responsiveness. Infants need to feel secure that they will be fed,
changed, nurtured, and comforted. If parents are responsive and dependable, infants become con�ident that their
needs will be met; they develop a sense of trust. In contrast, an insecure infant (perhaps one who has been neglected)
will develop a sense of mistrust. Therefore, the �irst of Erikson’s stages is referred to as basic trust versus mistrust.

Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (ages 1 to 3 years): If infants trust their parents, then as toddlers they can more
con�idently explore their environment. As toddlers begin to master skills like crawling, walking, talking, dressing, and
feeding themselves, they discover a sense of autonomy that leads to self-esteem. Parents must guide the development
of this independence so that children develop appropriate self-control without feeling shame that they have done
something bad and consequently doubt their own abilities.

Initiative Versus Guilt (ages 3 to 6 years): When children gain autonomy, they begin to master the world around them.
They become more independent but sometimes suffer negative consequences as a result. Early “experiments” with
food �lying off of a highchair, which �irst occur randomly, are now done with more purpose. Children might cut their
own hair. Parents again need to juggle reactions. If a 4-year-old attempts to bring a dish to the sink but ends up
breaking it, how should the parent react? Children can either be reinforced for taking the initiative or feel guilt for
having done something wrong. The key to helping children overcome this initiative versus guilt challenge is to set
balanced limits—not always an intuitive, easy task.

Industry Versus Inferiority (ages 5 to 12 years): Play becomes more purposeful or goal-oriented as children learn
more about the ways of the world. If they take the initiative, they can become accomplished and feel a sense of
industry. If they feel inadequate, perhaps because of the guilt from the earlier stage, children become discouraged in
their attempts to acquire knowledge or complete tasks. In that case, they may feel incompetent and unproductive,
which can lead to feelings of inferiority. By becoming industrious through the acquisition of a number of
competencies, children begin to build a sense of identity.

Identity Versus Role Confusion (adolescence): Erikson believed that the stage of identity development that coincides
with adolescence was pivotal. Early stages lead up to it, and later stages are dependent on it. In this stage, teenagers
try to discover who they really are, including their sexual identity and what they want to do in life. Beginning in early
adolescence, physical, sexual, and cognitive changes, as well as more complex social demands, contribute to confusion
about identity. Erikson called this time of potential upheaval the adolescent identity crisis. During this period,
adolescents will often try out different behaviors before �inding a clear path. The process of reconciling these

iStock/Thinkstock

If young adults have had trouble forming an
identity, they can also have trouble forming
deep emotional connections and develop a
sense of isolation.

challenges results in an individual’s achieving a sense of identity. On the other hand, when children are not allowed to
explore, create, and accomplish, they do not develop the competence necessary to de�ine goals and forge a unique
sense of self. Current and future roles remain unde�ined, or confused. This role confusion may lead to dif�iculty
forming close adult relationships. After all, if a person does not have a strong sense of identity, then there are few
intimacies that he or she can share with another person. This outcome is sometimes referred to as identity diffusion
since the self, or personality, lacks a uni�ied core. Erikson proposed that identity versus role confusion was the key to
developing into an adult.

Intimacy Versus Isolation (early adulthood): The adult personality
rests �irmly on the successful resolution of the challenges of earlier
developmental stages. Although close relationships may have formed
prior to this stage, the task here is to form successful relationships
and create intimacy. If a young adult has not successfully resolved the
crisis of identity, then it becomes more dif�icult to form deep
emotional connections. Expressing hopes, dreams, and fears to an
intimate partner also helps solidify and integrate self-image. In the
absence of intimacy, relationships are more super�icial; without the
risk of vulnerability, a sense of isolation develops. Erikson does not
limit these intimate relationships to sexual intimacy but extends them
to relationships with special friends also.

Generativity Versus Stagnation (middle adulthood): Adults seek to
accomplish goals that make them feel as if they have made a
difference in the world. Personality is integrated to achieve
occupational, social, and personal goals. People gain a sense of
ful�illment from these accomplishments, but they also seek additional
satisfaction by “leaving a mark.” Generativity refers to providing for

the next generation, by engaging in activities like teaching values, coaching sports, raising children, and volunteering.
In contrast, some individuals may not get much satisfaction from their nine-to-�ive jobs, and simply come home, eat
dinner, watch some TV, and do it again the next day. They develop a sense of stagnation, a feeling of sel�ishness and
lack of productivity.

Integrity Versus Despair (late adulthood): If adults have been successful in prior stages, a sense of personal integrity
emerges. People accept their lives and what they have accomplished, including leaving a mark on younger
generations. When looking back on their lives, they experience a sense of ful�illment. There is an acceptance of life’s
limitations and the understanding that regrets are unproductive. Despair is the result of knowing that goals went
unful�illed and there is no longer enough time to achieve them.

Hope and Faith Versus Despair (mid-eighties and later): Late in his career, when he became old himself, Erikson and
his wife formulated a ninth stage (Erikson & Erikson, 1998). In the oldest stage there are some new challenges. One
has to contend with the death of close friends and family members. There is less autonomy than previously. Mobility
can become more dif�icult. People may be forced to move so that everyday activities are easier to manage. If the
challenges of this stage are successfully navigated, people will experience a feeling of hope and faith. Erikson
suggested that successful resolution of this stage includes a shift in perspective from a materialistic and rational view
of the world to one that is transcendent and not easily measured. Death is accepted as the way of all living things.

Application of Erikson’s View and Empirical Findings

Erikson’s view enjoys both theoretical and applied support and provides additional understanding of both child and
adult behaviors. For example, if an employee is extremely reserved and �inds it dif�icult to ask for a deserved raise,
Erikson’s stage theory would suggest the worker had not met the challenge of autonomy versus shame and doubt; the
person has not gained assertiveness. That outcome could lead to a failure resolving the next stage, initiative versus guilt,
where the worker associates assertion with negative feelings. The lack of con�idence and fear of self-assertion makes it
more dif�icult to form intimate relationships, leading to feelings of isolation from others.

Research provides general support for the theory as well. For instance, Erikson suggested that without a sense of
intimacy, it is dif�icult to commit to relationships and activities that will provide for the next generation. Further, studies
have shown that those who have stable relationships and careers are indeed more likely to demonstrate generativity
than those who are still �loundering (Peterson & Klohnen, 1995). As might be predicted, generativity increases as we
age. Roughly 50% experience it by age 40, which increases to 83% by age 60. Other research is similarly supportive
(e.g., Whitbourne, Zuschlag, Elliot, & Waterman, 1991). This motivation to “give back” and create a purpose in life is
widely seen among older adults and is an excellent predictor of happiness and success in marriage (Vaillant, 2002;
Wnuk, Marcinkowski, & Fobair, 2012).

Section Review

Summarize Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, and explain how these challenges relate to the
development of personality.

NEXTNEXT

Figure 11.1: Marcia’s identity statuses

James Marcia described four possible outcomes related
to adolescent identity development.

Source: Adapted from Marcia (1966, 2007).

11.3 Other Perspectives of Personality Development

Though an alternative psychosocial perspective over the lifespan has not emerged, there are theories that attempt to
explain individual stages. James Marcia’s identity status model is a well-regarded application that has found support
among Western cultures; Daniel Levinson’s life transitions has received much popular support outside of academia and
psychology professionals, but falls short scienti�ically. We will look at these two perspectives next.

Marcia: Identity Status Model

James Marcia uses Erikson’s stage of identity versus role confusion as a backdrop and suggests that there are four ways
of resolving the crisis of identity that adolescence presents. His identity status model classi�ies individual identity
development in terms of two characteristics: crisis and commitment. Crisis refers to a period of some turmoil, during
which adolescents begin to question previous values. As a result, individuals explore different alternatives. For example,
a high school senior may consider a technical school, traveling, or several different college majors. Commitment refers
to whether or not a decision has been made related to the exploration (Marcia, 1966, 2007). There is quite a difference,
for instance, between an unmotivated high school student who jumps in and out of menial part-time jobs and one who
attends college workshops and volunteers at a health care agency. In the latter case, exploration will eventually lead to
commitment.

As Figure 11.1 indicates, Marcia organized four observable identity
statuses based on the two criteria of exploration (crisis) and
commitment. Identity achievement occurs when occupational and
social challenges of education, career, and marriage are explored and
pursued and there is a current commitment. For example, after an
individual investigates a number of opportunities in the mental health
�ield (e.g., social work, counseling psychology, research and teaching),
identity achievement would occur when the individual commits to the
pursuit of one over another. Early identity achievement is associated
with high achievement motivation, empathy, compassion, and self-
esteem. However, for most, identity does not solidify until the early to
mid-20s (Bang, 2013; Kroger, 2007; Kroger, Martinussen, & Marcia,
2010).

Adolescents sometimes commit to an identity without adequately
exploring alternatives, perhaps because of the strong in�luence of an
authority �igure or societal norm. They join the military, work in the
family business, or pursue a law degree because their parents have
decided that is “what is best.” This status of identity foreclosure
does not necessarily equal unhappiness, but it is associated with a
high need for approval. Identity foreclosure is more common among
Asian, European, and collectivist cultures than in mainstream, middle-
class culture in the United States. Therefore, the independence that is
indicative of identity achievement is not necessarily a desirable goal
for every group. Furthermore, secular changes within cultures affect goals and values. For instance, among adolescents
there has been a recent shift in attitudes, resulting in an increased concern for other people and the environment. As a
result, career development in the contemporary cohort of adolescents and young adults includes relatively more
collectivist goals and less materialism (Green�ield, Keller, Fuligini, & Maynard, 2003; Park, Twenge, & Green�ield, 2014;
Rothbaum, Weisz, Pott, Miyake, & Morelli, 2000).

Traditionally, though, middle-class culture in the United States is usually associated with exploration. The common
mantra of “you can be anything you want to be” is an example of parents encouraging the exploration of various
alternatives. When adolescents actively explore choices but are not committed, it is referred to as identity moratorium.
This struggle for identity is often associated with anxiety, since the future is unplanned. Those who are considering
changing majors or colleges, or dropping out of school altogether, are often in moratorium.

Critical Thinking

In what ways can attending college and
pursuing a degree be categorized as
identity foreclosure? When is it
moratorium?

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

The timing of events such as marriage,
childbearing, and retirement is much less
predictable than in past generations.

Finally, adolescents who have neither explored nor committed to any social or
occupational choices are in a state of identity diffusion. These individuals
tend to be �lighty, without clear direction for the future. They may be confused
about goals, occupation, sexual identity, or gender roles. The lack of
occupational or social dedication makes it dif�icult to sustain relationships.
Consequently, these individuals are more likely than others to become
isolated.

It is considered a positive development when individuals move from diffusion to foreclosure to moratorium to
achievement. However, adolescents are not necessarily �ixed into one identity status, and achievement does not mean
identity will remain stable. It is common for individuals to change statuses from moratorium to achievement and back
again, in what has been called the MAMA cycle. This sequence is considered normal and may appear periodically
throughout the lifespan, though moratorium status peaks during late adolescence and declines thereafter. About half of
all adolescents have a stable identity status (Kroger, 2007; Kroger et al., 2010). Among college students, status begins to
change later than young adults who do not attend college.

The way in which Erikson and Marcia discuss the concept of identity development is both a culmination of sorts and a
jumping-off point. That is, according to Erikson, we have a tendency to strive to reach a key phase of self-identity and
carry that forward into marriage, community, and retirement. Note, however, that these processes apply mostly to
Westernized youth and young adults. (Neither Erikson nor Marcia suggested that their theories could be applied
universally.) Cross-cultural studies have validated Marcia’s conceptual basis for achievement. However, identity
development is quite different, even within Western countries, when there are choices in career and education and
everyday survival can be taken for granted (e.g., Brzezińska & Piotrowski, 2013; Cinamon & Rich, 2014; Crocetti, Sica,
Schwartz, Sera�ini, & Meeus, 2013). In coal-mining towns or other working-class communities, for instance, the menu of
careers to explore often appears limited. Education might not be a high priority, and economic necessity may dictate
when and where a young adult seeks work. Identity development through exploration would not even be considered
when daily living remains a struggle.

Levinson: Life Transitions

Another way of looking at how personality develops is to identify normative age-graded in�luences, or how people view
the world at any particular time (see Chapter 1). For instance, there are speci�ic life transitions that coincide with age-
based norms, such as turning 30 or the “Big 5-0.” Puberty and menopause are two examples of biological in�luences
that are linked by age. However, from a psychosocial perspective, age-based norms have become more �luid. For
example, the social clock (age-graded social expectations) that formerly existed for getting married, having children,
and even retirement has expanded widely. The timing of these events is much less predictable than in past generations.

Nevertheless, some have suggested that …

Need Parts B and C of this project

Attachments

Acquisition

Acquisition Report
This is your data.
Channel Users New Users Sessions Bounce Rate Pages / Session Avg. Session Duration Transactions Revenue
Organic Search 647 574 752 53.53% 3.62 0:02:24 10 $50.90
Direct 172 160 197 38.58% 4.8 0:03:28 3 $5.27
Referral 29 28 31 35.96% 5.85 0:04:25 2 $23.54
Social 50 48 53 58.44% 3.31 0:01:32 1 $10.25
(Other) 29 19 35 43.02% 4.69 0:03:05 0 $0.00
Display 38 15 21 74.53% 2.19 0:02:03 5 $112.33
965 844 1,089 50.68% 5.85 0:02:50 21 $202.29
Part A: Metrics Calculations
Enter all calculations in the white boxes under the metric name.
Total Users Total New Users Total Sessions Average Bounce Rate Most
Pages / Session
Overall
Session Duration Average
Total
Transactions
Total
Revenue
965 844 1089 50.68 5.85 0:02:50 21 202.29
Lowest Bounce Rate
35.96%
Highest Bounce Rate
74.53%
Part A: Reflection Questions
Answer questions in complete sentences for your manager. Type your answers in the cell below the question.
1. What’s the difference between Users, New Users, and Sessions?
Users are people who were already visitors or users of the site
New users are first time visitors
Sessions is the number of times that the page was visited and people spent time searching or navigating through it.
2. I don’t understand the term bounce rate. What does it mean, and why should I pay attention to it?
Bounce rate refers to when visitors arrive to a site and leave shortly after. It’s an indicator that didn’t find it interesting, or was not relevant to them or simply not appealing. If the visit to the site was originated by an email marketing campaign or similar it’s an important rate to track because if the email catches the person’s attention then the site should not be disappointing.
3. Which channel has the best engagement? Which channel has the worst engagement? Explain your answers.
The Organic search channel had the most users and the higher number of new users. It also had the highest number of transactions, but not the highest revenue and its bounce rate was medium. Overall, it had the best engagement.
The numbers on the Display channel reflect a low number of users and new users, low number of sessions and pages per session, and the highest number of bounce rate. In contract was the channel with the highest revenue.
Thus the answer is, depends how you measure it.
Part B: Visualizations
Place the three charts below here. Be sure to title them appropriately.
Insert your Bar Chart of Users here. Insert your Bar Chart of Pages/ Session here. Insert your Bar Chart of of Revenue
Part B: Observations and Insights
Write your observation and insight about each chart below here.
1. What is one observation you can make about this chart? 1. What is one observation you can make about this chart? 1. What is one observation you can make about this chart?
2. What is an insight you can draw from this chart? 2. What is an insight you can draw from this chart? 2. What is an insight you can draw from this chart?

Emails

Email 1 Email 2 Email 3 Email 4 Part A: Email Metrics
User ID Received Opens Clicks Received Opens Clicks Received Opens Clicks Received Opens Clicks Email 1
980341888.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Received Opened Clicks Open Rate Click-Through Rate
25965937.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 192 41 9 21.35% 21.95%
968324898.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
129792872.1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Email 2
845027041.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Received Opened Clicks Open Rate Click-Through Rate
1103859327 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 200 48 3 24.00% 6.25%
330998331.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
489541186.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Email 3
519283787.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Received Opened Clicks Open Rate Click-Through Rate
587255092.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 210 48 7 22.86% 14.58%
1002080075 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
51278190.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Email 4
28986260.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Received Opened Clicks Open Rate Click-Through Rate
682313951.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 228 41 10 17.98% 24.39%
611103968.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
788019470.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Summary
1159848311 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Received Opened Total Clicks Open Rate Click-Through Rate
248747682.2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 830 178 29 81693% 15624%
272750670.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Average Clicks
527258592.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 7.25
1006721964 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1196870643 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
89727684.15 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 Reflection Questions
Answer questions in complete sentences.
980148654.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1102161961 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
552020348.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1. Which email performed the best? Explain your answer.
29634411.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Emails 1 and 4 performed the best because they had good open rate and click through rate.
625436116.1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
204448729.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
157463057.2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
599173366.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2. Which email performed the worst? Explain your answer.
661634720.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Email performed the worst because the click through rate is the lowest.
817468508.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
272330161.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1153056508 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
231054661.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
338919744.2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
408805928.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Part B: Visualizations
Place all charts and graphs below here. Be sure to title them appropriately.
575198031.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1068788549 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
132691650.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Insert your Pie Chart of Open Rate here. Insert your Pie Chart of Click-Through Rate here.
149120479.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
882981287.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
944848952.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
41784496.15 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
454842077.2 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
753023957.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
825032262.2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
843747008.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
1101303055 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
204416190.2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
212739394.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
548589324.2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
348468723.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
131659392.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
195628892.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
327391405.2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
415120172.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Part B: Observations and Insights
Write your observation and insight about each chart below here.
424966406.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
594272644.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
65717989.15 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1. What is one observation you can make about this chart? 1. What is one observation you can make about this chart?
749577540.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
814104048.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
909946326.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2. What is an insight you can draw from these charts?
910730132.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
960231824.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
977608168.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
867980549.2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
168806618.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
263522499.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
518613571.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
649851173.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
659959658.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
973000719.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
979260585.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
170848509.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
1017470654 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
693548264.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
777416624.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
1006173408 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1011337580 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
581826092.1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1232224509 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
426333818.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
550834595.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
796967057.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
132179739.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
632145124.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
1145178800 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
64906876.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
523761605.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1229778778 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
425673831.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
924145651.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
710501492.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
505156475.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
654935802.2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
851223168.2 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
837491545.1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
342041699.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
429681040.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
53096693.15 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
56625670.15 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
171832917.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
663643110.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
233503879.2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
547607522.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
698363233.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
887378132.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
316759585.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
869723423.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
321024320.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
406211457.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
732803853.2 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
831381137.2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
870195874.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
532873426.1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
420269408.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
69172704.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
843992201.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
674913926.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
819080020.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1076854809 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
716510357.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
743379574.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
880397678.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
945737224.2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
372897816.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1191594508 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
538366226.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
722432354.2 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
1004410816 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
689424496.2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
281303364.1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
774303040.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
350224601.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
468526228.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
93986812.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
998201234.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1086687358 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
351151241.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
858069656.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1082992548 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
183199908.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
204411401.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
833257339.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
839132202.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
396375410.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
42421437.15 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
436656807.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
663683948.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
770730641.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
823838145.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
93878500.15 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1207000107 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1231178557 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
165397043.2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
773891177.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
445878153.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
960543540.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1181110816 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
173479220.1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
186645850.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
564867604.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
899836525.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1068548767 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
420625277.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
538178028.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
37014518.15 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
1021430266 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
576776910.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
644428603.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
832482495.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1029677437 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1072561405 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
311385662.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
366933326.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
539104723.2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
480203838.2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
824242335.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
1035749425 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1114493318 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
356482396.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
31457530.15 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
77538155.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
1092473005 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1197812671 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
784253259.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1128799390 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
324056960.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
576279657.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
808503814.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
1162808890 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
817027229.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
990563981.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
685130363.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
268327733.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1125001226 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
449728295.1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
820024941.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
304412081.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
381080438.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
409839338.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
188201035.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
453467224.1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1040474274 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
3381580.15 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1209401588 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
496895878.2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
107544307.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1051095967 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1009608876 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1022607906 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
109367434.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1102625955 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
918357154.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
978497224.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
1103468131 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
1053742045 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1147884689 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
117964410.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
172161352.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
386893267.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
453044562.2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
651349739.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
983099612.1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
138834820.2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
166148686.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
352401720.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
687663341.2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1174121312 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
197411862.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
521864977.2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
188614805.1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
31534934.15 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
192 41 9 200 48 3 210 48 7 228 41 10

Adwords

Adwords Report
This is your data.
Part C: Adword Optimization
Find the individual click-through
and conversion rates here.
Month Campaign Ad Group Device Clicks Impressions Cost Conversions CTR Conversion Rate
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.1 Desktop 9 314 11.55 0
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.1 Mobile 7 292 13.61 2
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.1 Tablet 1 390 1.2 0
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.2 Desktop 2 78 4.6 0
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.2 Mobile 1 37 1.28 0
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.2 Tablet 0 12 0 0
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.3 Desktop 17 159 15.34 2
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.3 Mobile 10 79 8.44 1
1/1/18 Campaign 1 Ad Group 1.3 Tablet
56.02
Part A: Adword Campaign Metrics
Totals
Impressions Clicks Cost Conversions Click Through Rate Cost Per Click ROI
1,361 47 56.02 5 3.45% 119.19% 361.10%
Revenue from Display Channel -> $112.33 Total Revenue $202.29
Part A: Reflection Questions
Answer questions in complete sentences. Type your answers below the question.
Based on the ROI you calculated, would you recommend that this campaign continues? Explain your answer in a 3-5 sentence paragraph.
The total cost of this campaign was $56.02 and the return of investments is $3.6. It seems as a low ROI to me thus I would recommend not to continue with the campaign.
Part C: Adword Optimization
Include your two pivot tables here and anaysis here.
Include your Ad Group Pivot Table here. Include your Device Type Pivot Table here.
Part C: Adword Analysis
Answer questions in complete sentences. Type your answers below the question.
Which Ad Group would you say was the most effective, considering click-through rate, and conversion rate?

Which Ad Group would you say was the least effective, considering click-through rate, and conversion rate?

Based on the answers above, make basic recommendations on which groups future advertising budget should be spent.

Which device would you say was the most effective, considering click-through rate and conversion rate?

Which device would you say was the least effective, considering click-through rate and conversion rate?

Based on the answers above, make basic recommendations on which devices future advertisements should target.

Type your answers here. Type your answers here

Facebook

Facebook Report
This is your data.
Part B: Visualizations
Place all charts and graphs below here. Be sure to title them appropriately.
Post ID Impressions Likes Comments Shares Clicks
1 187 17 0 2 3
2 197 17 5 0 4 Insert your Line Chart of Impressions Here Insert your Line Chart of Likes, Comments, and Shares here
3 187 15 4 4 2
4 206 22 7 2 3
5 188 18 5 2 4
6 206 21 4 1 4
7 206 26 4 0 3
8 207 24 0 2 2
9 217 23 2 4 5
10 205 21 6 2 1
11 244 21 1 0 1
12 251 22 1 0 3
13 241 23 3 1 4
14 253 23 2 1 2
15 215 21 4 4 1
16 229 18 1 4 6
17 261 30 3 3 2
Part A: Social Metrics Part B: Observations and Insights
Write your observation and insight about each chart below here.
Impressions Likes Comments Shares Clicks 1. What is one observation you can make about this chart? 1. What is one observation you can make about this chart?
Total: 3700 362 52 32 50
Average: 217.65 21.29 3.06 1.88 2.94
Like Rate Comment Rate Share rate Click-Through Rate 2. What is an insight you can draw from this chart? 2. What is an insight you can draw from this chart?
9.78% 1.41% 0.86% 1.35%

NEED IN 12 HOURS or LESS

Attachments

EDU 5200, Building Professional and Community Relationships 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Analyze issues within their local communities
1.1 Investigate and uncover general issues impacting education within the educational setting and

the larger community.

4. Construct systemic steps to help individuals adapt to change.

4.1 Discuss ways you can accommodate the needs of your staff and faculty during the process of
change.

Course/Unit

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

1.1
Unit Lesson
Chapter 5, pp. 74–88

Unit II Compare/Contrast Essay

4.1
Unit Lesson
Chapter 6, pp. 90–102

Unit II Essay

Required Unit Resources

Chapter 5: Building Relationships With Your Internal Publics, pp. 74–88

Chapter 6: Embracing Your External Publics, pp. 90–102

Unit Lesson

What will it look like? That is a tough question. Let’s not put the cart before the horse. Take a step back for a

moment. In Unit I, we brought into the conversation research by Glickman, Fullan, Epstein et al., Sergiovanni,

and your textbook author, Fiore. In Unit II, we will explore three huge topics: change, motivation, and process.

One of the constants in education is change. We are all products of our environment and upbringing. Those
who have gone before us have impacted who we are and how we view the world. The transformation is a

slow process. When we view systems holistically, we can see the changes that have taken place, and, more

often than not, we can trace the steps that took place to get us to this point in time. Despite everyone
understanding that change takes place, this does not imply we like the change process. The vast majority of

us resist change. Later in this unit lesson, we will discuss the start of a process to build relationships internally
and externally. The key to this process and the acceptance of change is keeping it simple. Henry W adsworth

Longfellow (as cited in Mycoskie, 2011) stated, “In character, in manner, in style, in all things, the supreme
excellence is simplicity” (p. 97). With Longfellow’s comments tucked away in our brain, we will seek simplicity

encased in quality as we move forward as teacher leaders.

UNIT II STUDY GUIDE

What Will It Look Like?

EDU 5200, Building Professional and Community Relationships 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Let’s start with some assumptions. Let’s assume “most schools and classrooms operated on the reward or
punishment model, and use stimulus-response, behavior modification, or assertive discipline techniques”

(Sullo, 2007, p. 5). For over a century and a half, many educators have (and some still do) assumed human
behavior is a result of some environmental factors, and most of those are out of our control as educators. If

that were the case, then educators could count on extrinsic rewards to get learners, regardless of age, to
comply. Veteran educators and administrators, however, recognize that by offering rewards for learning, we

are devaluing the learning process and defeating our goal of creating lifelong learners.

Alfie Kohn, in his 1993 book, stated, “at any age rewards are less effective than intrinsic motivation for

promoting effective learning” (p. 144). Kohn’s writings in the 1990s disturbed a lot of educators. His
straightforward observations and comments led to a great deal of self-reflection by the education community.

Keep in mind Kohn would be viewed by most as a constructivist when we discuss teaching and learning, and

John Dewey and Jean Piaget heavily influenced him. If we believe that learning should be anchored in
problem-solving, project-based, and purpose-based experiences, then we need to design our efforts in

building partnerships to improve educational practices along the same lines. As teacher leaders, we must
recognize that facts and skills development is important, but it is not the end. Rather, it is the means to reach

a greater end.

Pause! Take a moment to let the last couple of sentences sink in. As leaders, our role has changed.

How do we make this process more intrinsic? As teacher leaders, we need to create a learning/teamwork

environment. We need to create a culture of caring within the partnership. This begins when the members of
the group feel valued and feel that we, as leaders, care about them personally and professionally. Dozens of

people are attributed with coining the phrase “people won’t care how much you know until they know how
much you care” (Maxwell, 2004, p. 91). John Maxwell used the phrase in several of his talks and books. John

Maxwell is a leadership theorist who has written such books as The Maxwell Leadership Assessment and

Becoming a 360 Degree Leader. This caring culture is cultivated over time and is modeled in our actions as
leaders. Celebrating victories together, acknowledging challenges, and knowing partners more deeply all

contribute to this caring culture.

Part of this leadership style is simply being visible. “To be seen as the keeper of the vision, and to

communicate regularly and purposefully, school leaders must be visible to the internal publics of their school”
(Fiore, 2011, p. 95). Fiore does a great job honoring teachers as the “teachers are the most important adults

in the school” (Fiore, 2011, p. 101). He does not overlook the importance of students in the building and
places a high emphasis on the need for the teacher leader and other leaders to build trust with students.

Too often, members of the support staff are overlooked as having an impact on the climate in a school. Keep

in mind that most teachers and administrators are “move-ins” in the community. They grew up somewhere

else and moved here because of their job in the school system. Members of the support staff are often from
the surrounding community. Many of them grew up in that community and are now raising their families there.

They are not only part of your internal community but also the external community, and most have siblings
and other relatives they associate with in the same community. They are an important component in building

community relationships.

Fiore (2011) does a nice job explaining the external public. Parents, taxpayers, churches, religious affiliates,

legislators, school alumni, businesses, industries, and families without children in school are all important
components that make up the external population. As a teacher leader, it is important to recognize the role

each party plays in creating a positive learning climate both inside the school walls and in the larger
community.

As the baby boomers reach retirement age, the community portrait of our external public takes on a slightly
different look. By 2010, the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) claimed membership in excess

of 40 million members (Fiore, 2011, p. 123). That age group consistently votes and possesses a large
percentage of the school district assets. How does that impact your school? As a result of the increase in the

retired population, intergenerational programs in schools become a positive way to involve your external
community.

EDU 5200, Building Professional and Community Relationships 3

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Now, let’s switch gears.

In the Unit I Lesson, we discussed Epstein et al.’s (2009) six types of involvement:

 parenting,

 communicating,

 volunteering,

 learning at home,

 decision-making, and

 collaborating with the community (pp. 14–16).

As we read Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 in Fiore’s textbook, we begin to see how theory can become a reality. A

common theme in the reading and the case study analysis used in our book is making schools a welcoming

place.

This effort to create a community portrait is important. When teacher leaders and others in leadership have a
clear understanding of the community as a whole, better facilitation, inclusion, and decision making take

place. Teachers in leadership positions is not a new concept. We have always had teachers who assume
leadership responsibilities outside of their regular teaching schedule or discipline. Those individuals were

often trusted by their colleagues, and they assumed their role as a mentor. Being trained as a classroom

teacher, however, is not the same as being an effective teacher leader. Teacher prep programs across our
nation are geared to help train and prepare teachers to meet the 21st century needs of our students. Little, if

any, time is spent on leadership. That is not a negative comment about our teacher prep programs, but rather
a recognition of the “tsunami” of demands on classroom teachers today. That same tsunami impacts families

and the community as a whole.

As we begin to think about what this will look like, we need to recognize that one of the most fundamental

human needs is the desire for power. Too often, in our current social and political settings, we view power as
a negative. “Power is the most misunderstood basic need” (Sullo, 2007, p. 94). In our conversation regarding

leadership, we need to reframe the impact the quest for power has in the life of a learner—regardless of age.
While the quest for dominance may be a negative desire, we need to understand that every individual wants

to have a say in their existence—whether that be when they go to bed at night, television viewing habits, or

advocating for their specific learning style. Every individual wants to have some input in his or her day. Too
often, we prescribe solutions for day-to-day issues without ever consulting those impacted by those solutions.

Teacher leaders need to understand that those they work with need to have some sense of control in the
process. This can easily be worked into our decision-making procedures and process.

Keep in mind this is a “power with” process and not a “power over” result.

Teacher leaders will be charged with the task of balancing the needs of faculty and staff with the need to keep
the process moving forward. While the emphasis may be on what is next, we must also honor the past. This is

best done through a self-reflection piece built into the process. This historical narrative not only keeps the
partnership focused on the end goal but also allowed new members to the process to understand better the

path the group has taken to reach this moment in time. It gives all members and even outsiders of the group

some perspective on past decisions, the culture and climate of the group, and the future direction of the
group. Celebrate the victories and learn from the setbacks.

Epstein et al. (2009) refer to “charting the course” (p. 14). Charting the course begins with self -reflection,

moves to action planning, and ends with the long-term impact of the course we, as a group, have plotted. The
entire process is anchored in the partnerships or relationships we have developed and cultivated.

So what will it look like?

Well, there is not a magic wand. Each community and each school is unique; thus, there will never be one
plan that fits all institutions—regardless of how many bills are passed in Congress, initiated by the occupant of

the White House, or mandated by a state legislature. Each process will stand alone. As a teacher leader, you

will have the insight and leadership skills to help chart the course for your unique setting.

EDU 5200, Building Professional and Community Relationships 4

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

References

Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M., Sheldon, S., Simon, B. S., Salinas, K. C., Jansorn, N. R., Van Voorhis, F. L.,
Martin, C. S., Thomas, B. G., Greenfeld, M. D., Hutchins, D. J., & Williams, K. J. (2009). School,

family, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action (3rd ed.). Corwin Press.

Fiore, D. J. (2011). School-community relations (3rd ed.). Routledge.

Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other

bribes. Houghton Mifflin.

Maxwell, J. C. (2004). Winning with people: Discover the people principles that work for you every time.

Thomas Nelson.

Mycoskie, B. (2011). Start something that matters. Spiegel & Grau.

Sullo, B. (2007). Activating the desire to learn. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Suggested Unit Resources

In order to access the following resource, click the link below.

Too often, as caring adults, we make changes in the environment around our children to pave the road to

success, not realizing the lessons learned on the journey to success provide us with some valuable life

lessons. In this article, Alfie Kohn approaches that issue. How can we take what we learn from this article and
apply it to our role as a teacher leader and to working with internal and external adult groups?

Kohn, A. (2014, May 4). Trophy fury: What’s behind claims that kids are coddled and over celebrated? New

York Times. http://www.alfiekohn.org/article/trophyfury/

Learning Activities (Nongraded)

Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit

them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.

Research the demographics of your community or school district. How do you see those demographics

changing over the next decade? What might be the impact? How do you, as a teacher leader, meet those
changes proactively?

  • References

Internal Versus External Candidates Worksheet

Attachments


HRM548 Recruitment and Retention Practices


With Dr. Kyle Steadham


University of Phoenix


Week 3 Individual Assignment


Page 1



W3- Internal vs. External Sources Comparison Chart & Grading Rubric (Rev. 5-15-21)



Internal vs. External Sources Comparison Chart



Overall Instructions: Complete the chart provided using size 10 Times New Roman font with single line spacing. Your total response must be at least 1000 words excluding references and the template. 5 peer-reviewed references must be embedded in your responses along with the full citations listed in the appropriate cells. When you are finished, upload the complete the entire document to Assignment area.


In the spaces below, using at least 600 words identify and define 3 (one in each cell of the first column) strategies used to evaluate internal versus external candidates. Then, describe the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy. Include research to support your answers.


#


Strategy


Advantages


(Include paraphrased research.)


Disadvantages


(Include paraphrased research.)


1


2


3


In the space below, assess in 200 words the factors that should be considered when deciding whether to hire from within or seek external candidates. Defend your recommendation with examples and research.




Identify the job title with which you are familiar in the cell to the right (


In the space below, in 200 words, describe whether you would hire using an internal or external process for the position you identified and defend your recommendation with examples and research.


#


2 Peer-Reviewed References in APA Format


1


2



Grading Rubric



Content 50%


Points Available


40 Max


Points Earned



Review the following student materials to understand the nature of this assignment:

· W3- Internal vs. External Sources Comparison Chart & Grading Rubric

· Guide to Peer-Reviewed References & APA Formatting

·

Strategic Staffing

, Ch. 6

In this assignment, you will complete a chart already designed for you. In the chart you will:

· Identify and define 3 strategies used to evaluate internal versus external candidates and describe the pros and cons of each strategy

· Describe factors that should be considered when deciding whether to hire from within or to seek external candidates

· Describe whether you would hire using an internal or external process

For all answers, you must defend your answers with examples and research.

Complete the chart provided using size 10 Times New Roman font with single line spacing. Your total response must be at least 1000 words excluding references and the template instructions. 2 peer-reviewed references must be embedded in your responses along with the full citations listed in the appropriate cells. When you are finished, upload the complete the entire document to Assignment Files Tab.















Organization / Development




25%








Points Available


25 Max




Points Earned



The memo is at least 1000 words in length (excluding labels, headers, references)


The template is used correctly.




Mechanics




25%


Points Earned


25 Max


Points Earned



Rules of grammar, word usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling are followed.




Sentences are complete, clear, varied, and concise with proper syntax.




Used size 10 Times New Roman font for main body text and References.




Used single between sentences and in References section.




Used naming convention “FirstName_LastName_Week #_ Memo.doc” when saving and uploading file.





Total Points Available


90


Total Points Earned





help with capstone project

Attachments

Documentation

Illustrated Excel 2019 | Modules 5-8: SAM Capstone Project 1a
CTC Casualty Insurance
MANAGE FORMULAS, DATA, AND TABLES
Author: Tyler Redd
Note: Do not edit this sheet. If your name does not appear in cell B6, please download a new copy of the file from the SAM website.

Auto Insurance

CTC Casualty Insuarcne
Coverage ID Column1 Coverage Limit Type Underwriter
CL220 Collision $30,000 Standard United
CO110 Comprehensive $35,000 Standard North American
LI200 Injury liability $100,000 Standard VUA Group
LI205 Property liability $35,000 Standard VUA Group
UN104 Uninsured motorist $100,000 Standard North American
UN107 Underinsured motorist $100,000 Standard United
CA200 Classic car $50,000 Add-on North American
ME300 Medical payments $5,000 Add-on North American
ME310 Personal injury $5,000 Add-on VUA Group
RE105 Rental reimbursement $500 Add-on United
Deductible Monthly payment Premiums Premiums
$ 100 $ 250
$ 250 $ 182
$ 500 $ 129
$ 1,000 $ 89
$ 2,000 $ 84

Gwen Rayburn

Premiums

CTC Casualty Insuarcne
State Age State Minimum Liability Only Full Coverage Age
IL 20 $1,102 $1,261 $3,214 <35
IL 25 $608 $691 $1,745
IL 30 $575 $673 $1,596 State Age State Minimum Liability Only Full Coverage
IL 35 $552 $627 $1,564 IL 20 $1,102 $1,261 $3,214
IL 45 $505 $617 $1,553 IL 25 $608 $691 $1,745
IL 55 $494 $560 $1,363 IL 30 $575 $673 $1,596
IL 65 $515 $585 $1,402 MI 20 $1,176 $1,280 $3,301
IL 75 $630 $718 $1,651 MI 25 $625 $702 $1,788
MI 20 $1,176 $1,280 $3,301 MI 30 $585 $683 $1,605
MI 25 $625 $702 $1,788 MN 20 $1,076 $1,160 $3,278
MI 30 $585 $683 $1,605 MN 25 $609 $698 $1,705
MI 35 $522 $620 $1,557 MN 30 $568 $635 $1,521
MI 45 $502 $588 $1,450 WI 20 $1,100 $1,158 $3,305
MI 55 $490 $560 $1,360 WI 25 $615 $704 $1,750
MI 65 $525 $580 $1,475 WI 30 $580 $620 $1,500
MI 75 $632 $720 $1,684
MN 20 $1,076 $1,160 $3,278
MN 25 $609 $698 $1,705
MN 30 $568 $635 $1,521
MN 35 $518 $618 $1,500
MN 45 $487 $569 $1,407
MN 55 $480 $549 $1,344
MN 65 $530 $560 $1,299
MN 75 $637 $728 $1,690
WI 20 $1,100 $1,158 $3,305
WI 25 $615 $704 $1,750
WI 30 $580 $620 $1,500
WI 35 $520 $605 $1,478
WI 45 $457 $550 $1,402
WI 55 $450 $549 $1,384
WI 65 $535 $560 $1,307
WI 75 $640 $725 $1,710

Premiums Pivot

Row Labels Average of State Minimum Sum of Full Coverage Average of Full Coverage2
IL $623 14088 $1,761
WI $612 13836 $1,730
Grand Total $617 27924 $1,745

Average Premiums by State

Average of State Minimum IL WI 622.625 612.125 Sum of Full Coverage IL WI 14088 13836 Average of Full Coverage2 IL WI 1761 1729.5

Clients

CTC Casualty Insuarcne Premiums
Client ID Client Start Date Policy Number Policy Type Bundled? Per Month Payment Client ID VA2118
CU2107 Addison Cushman 6/7/21 14-586 Auto No $98 Client name ERROR:#REF!
RE2109 Amy Remont 9/3/21 18-672 Auto Yes $52 Policy Type
PA1733 Asmir Papke 8/16/21 20-560 Classic car No $49
BR2215 Brent Bridgewell 2/5/21 19-456 Auto No $95 Payments
RE1165 Christine Reale 12/9/21 14-098 Motorcycle No $101 Policies
SP1378 Clare Ann Spahn 5/15/21 14-238 Auto No $22
VO2020 Cliff Voltz 4/2/21 16-214 Auto Yes $53 Auto
WI1992 Danielle Winkley 5/8/21 14-587 RV/Trailer Yes $81 Classic car
YO1522 Dennis Yoder 9/5/21 18-673 Auto No $53 Motorcycle
MA2177 Duane Maki 11/6/21 20-561 Auto Yes $96 RV/Trailer
CH1643 Emily Charlson 6/12/21 19-457 Auto No $87
GU2732 Erika Gutierrez 10/18/21 14-378 Motorcycle No $72
ST1488 Erin Steffin 4/7/21 14-518 Auto No $49
MO1596 Felipe Morales 1/30/21 14-587 Auto No $50
CO2341 Greta Conner 3/31/21 18-673 Auto Yes $94
TA1334 Ingrid Talcott 8/19/21 20-561 Auto No $79
GU1082 Janice Guitarro 11/9/21 19-457 Auto Yes $51
CH1525 Jing Chee 10/19/21 14-378 Motorcycle No $73
SH2109 Joe Sheldon 7/28/21 14-518 Classic car No $84
AT2317 John Athas 1/16/21 16-215 Auto Yes $96
BR1966 Justin Bruns 5/20/21 14-588 Auto No $98
WU2304 Kendall Wu 11/30/21 18-674 RV/Trailer No $99
JA1983 Kristin Jackson 7/15/21 20-562 Auto No $44
KO1743 Kyle Kohlenberg 12/20/21 19-458 Auto Yes $41
HU2087 Lamar Hubbard 9/3/21 14-658 Auto Yes $52
CO2037 Lance Collins 10/3/21 14-587 Motorcycle No $72
KA1969 Lucinda Kalar 3/22/21 18-673 Auto Yes $41
HE2081 Luis Henriques 4/20/21 20-561 Auto Yes $42
MA1696 Maria Marquez 1/25/21 19-457 Auto Yes $43
RA1380 Mark Rabin 2/6/21 14-378 Auto No $47
LI1482 Michael Lightner 8/30/21 14-518 Motorcycle Yes $69
TH2331 Michelle Thomson 11/4/21 16-215 Auto Yes $44
TH1927 Miriam Thalman 9/3/21 14-588 Auto No $52
KA1767 Noriko Kana 10/3/21 18-674 Auto No $51
VA2118 Peter Vang 3/22/21 14-587 Auto No $44
CH2201 Ramiro Chavez 4/20/21 18-673 Classic car Yes $75
JO2337 Remi Johnson 1/25/21 20-561 Auto No $52
WA1336 Rodney Walsh 2/6/21 19-457 Auto Yes $53
IV1868 Shaniqua Ivers 8/30/21 14-378 Auto Yes $98
YO1752 Shin Yong 9/3/21 14-518 Auto Yes $56
BU2245 Tamara Burroughs 10/3/21 16-215 Auto No $47
GR2376 Todd Greaney 3/22/21 14-588 Motorcycle Yes $80
WA1873 Tom Wang 4/20/21 18-674 Classic car No $74
EN1875 Troy Enderes 1/25/21 20-562 Auto Yes $55
KH2022 Veronica Khan 2/6/21 19-458 Auto No $53

Professional Organization

Attachments

“Decreasing Refusal Rates of Anticoagulants in the Hypercoagulable Population
of Oncology Patients to Aid in Prevention of Thrombotic Events”

Erika Shearey RN MSN PCRN CMSRN

INTRODUCTION
• Oncology patients are at a higher risk of developing venous

thromboembolism when compared to that of any other
patient population.

• Thrombotic events are the 2nd leading cause of death in
cancer patients after death from the cancer itself.

• One missed dose of anticoagulation places the patient at 5
times greater risk of developing a VTE.

PURPOSE
• Decrease the refusal rate of patients with ordered

anticoagulants to help improve patient outcomes of oncology
patients by reducing the risk of VTEs, thus reducing the risk of
morbidity/mortality.

METHODS

FINDINGS
• When the anticoagulant default was changed from heparin to

enoxaparin sodium in April of quarter 3 FY 2018, the unit saw
a decrease in monthly refusals (March 2018 = 130 refusals,
April= 42 refusals).

• The fiscal year finished with 871 total refusals with a goal of 1188.

• See Table 1

CONCLUSIONS

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
This quality improvement project shows how guiding nurses
communication along with creating a path for education can
help keep patients safe by ensuring that they receive much
needed anticoagulants. When patients receive their scheduled
anticoagulants, it helps promote a reduction in risk of a VTE
event.

• Changing the default anticoagulant, adding a chain of
command for refusals, along with chart audits and 1:1
education has improved our refusal rate for anticoagulants
drastically and has stayed consistent.

• Daily chart audits are completed at 0700 Monday through
Friday and the algorithm remains in place and is used by all
unit RNs.

• The unit currently finished the Month of February 2020 with
29 refusals and the month of March 2020 with 36 refusals.

REFERENCES
• Bauer, K., Leung, L., & Tirnauer, J. (2019). Risk and prevention of venous thromboembolism in adults with

cancer. Up To Date. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/risk-and-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism-
in-adults-with-cancer#H783126885

• Bauer, K., Leung, L., Mandel, J., & Finlay, G. (2020). Anticoagulation therapy for venous

thromboembolism (lower extremity venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in adult patients with
malignancy. UpToDate. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/anticoagulation-therapy-for-venous-
thromboembolism-lower-extremity-venous-thrombosis-and-pulmonary-embolism-in-adult-patients-with-malignancy

• Farge, D., Frere, C., Connors, J., Ay, C., Khorana, A., & Munoz, A. et al. (2019). 2019 International clinical

practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. The Lancet
Oncology, 20. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30336-5

• Song AB, Rosovsky RP, Connors JM, Al-Samkari H. Direct oral anticoagulants for treatment and

prevention of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2019;15:175-186
https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S132556

• The unit default anticoagulant was changed from heparin to
enoxaparin sodium in quarter 3 of fiscal year 2018.

• An algorithm was created in quarter 2 of fiscal year 2019 that
the RN would follow if the patient refused a dose of
anticoagulant.

• If the patient refused the RN must notify the Charge RN or
Clinician.

• If patient remains adamant on refusal after Charge RN or Clinician
went in to further educate

• Pharmacy would be consulted to also come speak with the
patient.

• Topical anesthetic spray was ordered and used on patients whose
refusal was due to pain from injection.

• Documentation was also monitored to ensure unit RNs were
documenting properly when anticoagulants were ordered to
be held due to parameters or MD order. If improper
documentation was noted, then RN would receive 1:1
coaching regarding proper documentation to reflect orders.

FINDINGS CONTINUED
• Once an algorithm and documentation audits were put into

action the average refusals per month went from 72.5 (FY
2018) to 39.6 (FY 2019). This was much more sustainable.

• FY 2019 ended with a refusal total of 534 with a goal of 1,020.

• See Table 2

• Overall there has been a 38.69% decrease in VTE refusals from
FY 2018 to current. This is a decrease in 340 VTE refusals in FY
2019.

• See Table 3

EKG Assignment

Attachments

What Rhythm is This? Lewis 2021

What rhythm is this? ____________________________________________

How do we treat it? _____________________________________________

What does this patient look like? _________________________________________________

What rhythm is this? _______________________________________________

How do we treat it? ________________________________________________

What does this patient look like? _______________________________________________________

What Rhythm is This? Lewis 2021

What rhythm is this? _______________________________________________

How do we treat it? ________________________________________________

What does this patient look like? _______________________________________________________

What rhythm is this? _______________________________________________

How do we treat it? ________________________________________________

What does this patient look like? _______________________________________________________

What Rhythm is This? Lewis 2021

What rhythm is this? _______________________________________________

How do we treat it? ________________________________________________

What does this patient look like? _______________________________________________________

What rhythm is this? _______________________________________________

How do we treat it? ________________________________________________

What does this patient look like? _______________________________________________________

What rhythm is this? _______________________________________________

How do we treat it? ________________________________________________

part 2 only

Attachments

7/13/2021 Discussion Question #2

https://moodle.tru.ca/mod/forum/view.php?id=1438490 1/4

Dashboard / My courses / ECON_2330_02_202130 / Sections / 12 July – 18 July / Discussion Question #2

ECON2330_02 – Economics & Business Stats 2

(Summer 2021)

Discussion Question #2

View grades

Display replies in nested form

 Settings

The due date for posting to this forum is Sunday, 18 July 2021, 7:00 PM.

Why is so important ethics in Statistics? What are the consequences of unethical behaviour while conducting statistical
analysis? Is there any positive aspect of unethical behaviour while conducting statistical analysis?

Please, elaborate within the limit.

Instructions:

There are two different parts to complete in DQ#2

Part 1 is your understanding of DQ#2. This task includes your research and critical thinking about the question to make your
answer unique. The maximum number of words is 300, and you can add graphs, examples, figures, links, etc.

Please, don’t forget to make references to any resource used in your response. Remember, plagiarism won’t be tolerated. Use
APA writing style.

The due date for Part 1 is Thursday, July 15 at 7 pm.  Late submission will be graded with zero.

In Part 2, you will prepare three (3) peer responses to someone else’s understanding of DQ#2. Alternatively, you can also
write down comments to someone else’s peer responses in DQ #2. Short Answers (one sentence) like I agree, great or I
don’t like your point are not accepted. Plus, use your critical thinking, additional facts to make your peer responses valid.
There is no limit for words when writing down peer response. The minimum number of words for each peer response is 50.
Once again, you can use graphs, examples, figures, links, etc to enrich your comments. Use APA writing style.

The due date for part 2 is Sunday, July 18 at 7 pm.

Discussion Question #2

Friday, 18 June 2021, 11:56 AM

 Search forums

7/13/2021 Discussion Question #2

https://moodle.tru.ca/mod/forum/view.php?id=1438490 2/4

Please, don’t hesitate to connect with me if any question.

Note: Don’t use attachments since it’s difficult for the rest of the class to see and comment on your work. Please, write down
directly in the dialogue box provided by Moodle.

283 words

Permalink Reply

Ethics are important in Statistics in order to give direction to research. So that it is objective and reflects the truth.
Personal gains need to kept aside while choosing a sample or conducting a survey. Prejudice can affect the
interpretation of data.
The consequences of unethical behaviour could be severe such as, it misrepresentation of data/facts to the
customers or shareholders. They would not know the real picture or the bigger truth. It is very important to be
unbiased and conduct surveys or statistical analysis.
Example: a vehicle might be marked high on safety but low of comfort. If only the data of safety is showed, then the
company is, in a way, misleading the shareholders/customers about the real picture.
Ethics will help in truthfulness and efficiency will not be generated unethically.
I don’t think there is any positive aspect of unethical behaviour while conducting analysis because those results
might impress someone in the short run, but they will just blindside you but profits can’t be generated in the long
run unethically because you are moulding the information for your personal gain. By following ethics, major losses
can be prevented.
References:
Kalla, S. (2010, April 16). Ethics in Statistics. Https://Explorable.Com/Ethics-in-Statistics.
https://explorable.com/ethics-in-statistics
209 words

Permalink Show parent Reply

Re: Discussion Question #2

by Shallu Shallu – Monday, 12 July 2021, 9:10 PM

In every field ethics are important because it provides discipline, correct information and many other aspects.
Researcher can gain information and knowledge if the field has some ethics. There will be no misinterpretation of
the data as well if ethics is there and ethics should be followed.
There are number of ways in which unethical behavior can arise in statistics. It is easy to manipulate and hide data,
if someone is prominent about their desires and numbers don’t actually speak. Therefore, it gives rise to a phrase
“Lies, damned lies and statistics”. It doesn’t happen all the time and there should be no reason to believe in the
decision made for statistical analysis.
Ethics in statistics in is uncomplicated and we can see little bit of complex at times. It depends on what kind of
statistical analysis has been done with the help of data. Unethical behavior can arise at any point from between
data collection to data interpretation (Kalla, 2021).
For instance, data can be made natively biased by posting wrong question which indicates strong emotion as
compared to objective realities. It happens every time when the survey has been conducted and focus on the
viewpoint rather than resulting for the truth.
Other example can be seen when scientists are not including the data aberration in their research and examine to
validate their viewpoint. It can be seen in both pure science and social sciences. By hiding or taking only the data
points which reinforce particular theory scientists therefore taking part in unethical behavior (Kalla, 2021).

Re: Discussion Question #2

by Arpreet Singh Gulati – Tuesday, 13 July 2021, 1:47 PM

7/13/2021 Discussion Question #2

https://moodle.tru.ca/mod/forum/view.php?id=1438490 3/4

Ethics plays important role while presenting data. Numbers provided in data don’t lie but their interpretation and
representation can be misleading. For instance, after survey has been conducted company may decide to publish
and provide only numbers and figures which reflects the company well or they can either totally neglect nor not
give much importance to other figures.
Surveys as well as polls often indulge in unethical behavior to support a viewpoint. For example: survey might not
reflect true public opinion as it is not statistically significant. On the contrary, some of the surveys don’t publish this
along with their poll which can be misleading.
As a researcher it’s important to be objective as well as they provide the complete information which can be
attained from experiment without hiding any information or hiding something for personal gain. Ethics plays
important role to give the right direction to research which reflects the truth and the objective of the research
(Kalla, 2021).

References
Kalla, S. (2021, July 13). Explorable. Retrieved from Explorable: https://explorable.com/ethics-in-
statistics#:~:text=Ethics%20in%20statistics%20are%20important,objective%20and%20reflects%20the%20truth.
442 words

Permalink Show parent Reply

Like in everything in life, ethics is highly crucial in statistics as well. In statistics it is usually very easy to hide and
manipulate data to get your desired results. We can see this unethical practice in any form from data collection to
data interpretation. This affects the reliability of the statistical analysis.

A statistician is hired by an employer who places his/her trust on them to provide an unbiased and accurate
analysis with regards to certain decision makings. If the statistician is not ethical and gives false data, the company
will end up making wrong decisions and may have to incur losses.

The American Statistical Association’s Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice clearly states that this is not
acceptable and is an offense to breach the trust of those who rely on statistical analysis for their decision making,
as they have the right to receive results of the standards they expect.

Moreover, the guidelines also state that it is deemed as unethical for an unqualified statistician to analyze data as
that can also lead to errors in results, which can cause issues for the company.

For instance; if a company manager wants to decide if it is beneficial to invest in new equipment or not, and if the
statistician gives a wrong analysis, he would make a heavy expense that is not of any use to the company.

I believe anything that is unethical can never have any positive value; thus, even in statistics there would not be any
benefits derived from such practice.

References:
Association, C. o. (2018, April). American Statistical Association. Retrieved from https://www.amstat.org/ASA/Your-
Career/Ethical-Guidelines-for-Statistical-Practice.aspx
274 words

Permalink Show parent Reply

Re: Discussion Question #2

by Anusha Chaluve – Tuesday, 13 July 2021, 2:21 PM

◄ Econ 2330 Recording – Session 15

Jump to…

Due tomorrow 7/14/2021at 11 PM EST original work a must follow instructions carefully

Attachments

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Content

Name: NURS_6630_Week7_Discussion_Rubric

Excellent

Point range: 90–100

Good

Point range: 80–89

Fair

Point range: 70–79

Poor

Point range: 0–69

Main Posting:

Response to the Discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Points:

Points Range:
40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Thoroughly responds to the Discussion question(s).

Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three current credible sources.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to most of the Discussion question(s).

Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible references.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
31 (31%) – 34 (34%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with fewer than two credible references.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 30 (30%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s).

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible references.

Feedback:

Main Posting:

Writing

Points:

Points Range:
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Written clearly and concisely.

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Written concisely.

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Written somewhat concisely.

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Feedback:

Main Posting:

Timely and full participation

Points:

Points Range:
9 (9%) – 10 (10%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Meets requirements for full participation.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post main Discussion by due date.

Feedback:

First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

Points:

Points Range:
9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

Feedback:

First Response:
Writing
Points:

Points Range:
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Feedback:

First Response:
Timely and full participation
Points:

Points Range:
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Posts by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Feedback:

Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.
Points:

Points Range:
9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

Feedback:

Second Response:
Writing
Points:

Points Range:
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Feedback:

Second Response:
Timely and full participation
Points:

Points Range:
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Posts by due date.

Feedback:

Points:

Points Range:
0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Feedback:

Show Descriptions

Show Feedback

Main Posting:

Response to the Discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Thoroughly responds to the Discussion question(s).

Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three current credible sources.

Good

Point range: 80–89
35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to most of the Discussion question(s).

Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible references.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
31 (31%) – 34 (34%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with fewer than two credible references.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 30 (30%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s).

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible references.

Feedback:

Main Posting:

Writing–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Written clearly and concisely.

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Good

Point range: 80–89
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Written concisely.

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Written somewhat concisely.

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Feedback:

Main Posting:

Timely and full participation–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
9 (9%) – 10 (10%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Good

Point range: 80–89
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Meets requirements for full participation.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post main Discussion by due date.

Feedback:

First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Good

Point range: 80–89
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

Feedback:

First Response:
Writing–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

Good

Point range: 80–89
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Feedback:

First Response:
Timely and full participation–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

Good

Point range: 80–89
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Posts by due date.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Feedback:

Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Good

Point range: 80–89
8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
7 (7%) – 7 (7%)

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 6 (6%)

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

Feedback:

Second Response:
Writing–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

Good

Point range: 80–89
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Feedback:

Second Response:
Timely and full participation–

Levels of Achievement:

Excellent

Point range: 90–100
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

Good

Point range: 80–89
4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

Fair

Point range: 70–79
3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Posts by due date.

Poor

Point range: 0–69
0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Feedback:

Total Points: 100

Name: NURS_6630_Week7_Discussion_Rubric

math assignment due by 20 hours

Attachments

Problem Sheet 1 Mathematics for AI

Problem Sheet 1 Week 2

This problem sheet consists of two questions. Each question contains three parts.

• Parts a), worth 40% of the marks in each question, test your knowledge of the core

material, and you should aim to provide good answers to this part of all questions.

• Parts b), worth 30% of the marks in each question, involve taking the concepts you have

been taught, but applying them in ways you may not have directly been shown. You

should attempt all the parts b), but you can still get a good mark without completing

all of them.

• Parts c), worth 30% of the marks in each question, are difficult questions which will
test your understanding of the concepts taught in unfamiliar situations.

Question 1 (50%):

a) Translate the following sentences into propositional logic. Your formalizations should

be as detailed as possible.

i) Alice will go to the cinema or the theatre.

ii) Two is a prime number and not an odd number.

iii) If the speed limit is 30mph and I am driving at 25mph, then I am not breaking the

law.

iv) If Bob is not sleeping then he is working, eating, or relaxing.

v) Carlos will go to the park only if it is not raining.

Translate the following sentences into predicate logic. Your formalizations should be as

detailed as possible.

vi) Everyone is mortal.

vii) Unicorns do not exist.

viii) Every professional tennis player could beat any amateur tennis player.

ix) Everyone has either a father or a mother.

x) Somebody has visited every country that currently exists.

b) Consider the following formula of propositional logic:

P = ((A∧B)∨(¬A∧¬B)) →C

i) Suppose A = “I will go to the shops”, B = “I will go out for lunch” , C = “My

partner will be unhappy”. Translate P into an English sentence.

Problem Sheet 1 Mathematics for AI

ii) Suppose A is true, B is false and C is true. Is P true or false? Briefly explain

why.

iii) Which truth values for A , B and C result in P being false?

c) Consider the sentence “There is an animal in the zoo such that, if that animal is sleeping,

then every animal in the zoo is sleeping.”, formalised in predicate logic by the sentence

Q = ∃x(P x →∀yP y)

i) Suppose the zoo contains two animals, and both are sleeping. Is Q true or false?

ii) Now suppose one animal is sleeping, and one is awake. Is Q true or false?

iii) Now suppose we still know that the zoo contains two animals, but we do not know

how many are sleeping or awake. Can we know if Q is true or false?

iv) Now suppose we don’t know how many animals the zoo contains, except that there

is at least one animal, and we don’t know how many are awake or asleep. Can we

know if Q is true or false?

Question 2 (50%):

a) Identify which of these relations are reflexive, which are symmetric, which are transitive,

and which are equivalence relations. You do not need to show any working.

i) A is the set of all animals, R1 = {(a,b) |a is the same species as b}⊆A×A

ii) R2 = {(m,n) |m2 ≤n2}⊆Z×Z

iii) R3 = {(x,y) |x + y < 1}⊆R×R

iv) B = {0,1,2} , R4 = {(0,0),(0,1),(1,0),(1,1),(2,2)}⊆B×B

v) B = {0,1,2} , R5 = {(0,1),(1,2),(2,0)}⊆B×B

b) We define a function f : N→Z such that:

f (x) =


x
2 if x is even

−x+12 if x is odd

i) Prove that f is an injection.

ii) Prove that f is a bijection.

iii) Given that f is a bijection, find the inverse function f −1 : Z→N

iv) Given the previous parts, what can we say about the cardinality of N and Z ?

c) In this problem sheet, we will call a relation R geometric if ∀x,y,z(xRy∧xRz →yRz)

i) Prove that if a relation is geometric and reflexive, then it is also symmetric.

Problem Sheet 1 Mathematics for AI

ii) Using the previous part, prove that if a relation is geometric and reflexive, then it

is an equivalence relation.

iii) Let f : A→B be a function. We define the relation

R⊆A×A, R = {(x,y) | f (x) = f (y)}

By showing that it is geometric and reflexive, show that R is an equivalence

relation. What are the equivalence classes of R ?