sports questions

1. How would you incorporate a winners circle in your practices and games?  Give three different ideas/ways a winners circle can be used.

2. Explain what a Mistake Ritual is and give three examples that you might use as a coach.

3. Explain what the Magic Ratio is and then give a practice drill/ situation and how  you would  use the magic ratio.

4. Explain what you as a coach can do to stop hazing within your team?

Perspective- Resources and the Future Responses

Provide (2) 150 words substantive response with a minimum of 1 APA references for RESPONSES 1 AND 2 below. Response provided should further discuss the subject or provide more insight. To further understand the response, below is the discussion post that’s discusses the responses. 100% original work and not plagiarized. Must meet deadline.


Threats targeting remote workers will increase, particularly if the work from home movement continues post-COVID. This in turn raises the threat against VPNs and cloud-based usage, such as overall misconfigurations, login/username/passwords issues, data retention and deletion concerns, etc. (StealthLabs, 2020).

Also, while not specifically network-focused, insider threats will potentially increase as well (which then takes advantage of network vulnerabilities). This includes unauthorized remote access (connecting unsecured mobile devices, for instance), utilizing misconfigured network weaknesses, and other vulnerabilities which lead to compromises and/or attacks (Hendry, 2021).

To remedy these two threats (and others), evolving technologies may be able to assist. For instance, artificial intelligence and machine learning can be used to analyze network traffic or user movements, and quickly alert security officials to anything unusual. Machine learning may also be able to proactively identify any threats prior to compromises even occurring (Brooks, 2020). Super computing or quantum computing will also eventually be used to better encrypt connections, files, etc. NIST is currently evaluating 65+ methods of post-quantum cryptography which may be used to secure systems in the future (Denning, 2019). On the flip slide, though, this technology can also be used by malicious actors to decrypt and attack systems.

Also, governance, risk and compliance (GRC) will help with all of these above, in that GRC outlines a way forward to protect systems from compromises. For instance, governance includes drafting policies and procedures to ensure data and network security. Risk is when an organization identifies specific threats and how to best remedy those vulnerabilities. And compliance works to ensure all users are adhering to the requirements implemented by the organization.


Brooks, C. (05 July 2020). Four Evolving Technology Areas of Smart Cybersecurity. Forbes. Retrieved 15 March 2021, from

Denning, D. (2019). Is Quantum Computing a Cybersecurity Threat. American Scientist. Retrieved 15 March 2021, from

Hendry, J. (2021). Ex-Contractor Accessed Vic Govt IT System 260 Times a Year After Leaving. IT News. Retrieved 15 March 2021, from

StealthLabs (2020). Cybersecurity Trends in 2021 and Beyond. StealthLabs. Retrieved 15 March 2021, from



1. List your thoughts on what the future holds for network security threats (what they are, will they increase, decline, etc.).

Bigger and better Malware and botnets that attack in more sophisticated ways. Starting in the “Cloud” as businesses increasingly rely on various cloud services for managing their customer data, internal project plans and financial assets, we expect to see an emergence of attacks targeting endpoints, mobile devices and credentials as means to gaining access to corporate or personal clouds. It’s hard to predict what form future attacks will take – but we can imagine ransomware taking hostage not just your local documents, but any type of cloud-hosted data. These attacks may not require data encryption and could take the form of blackmail – threats of going public with your confidential data. Strong password and cloud data access policies are more important than ever, your security is only as good as your weakest point!

2. List any evolving technologies (new) that you are aware of that can help with the threats you listed.

The next generation of firewalls is a hardware or software-based network security system that is able to detect and block sophisticated attacks by enforcing security policies at the application level, as well as at the port and protocol level. Next-generation firewalls integrate three key assets: enterprise firewall capabilities, an intrusion prevention system (IPS) and application control. Like the introduction of stateful inspection in first-generation firewalls, NGFWs bring additional context to the firewall’s decision-making process by providing it with the ability to understand the details of the Web application traffic passing through it and taking action to block traffic that might exploit vulnerabilities. This is the single best example of what is evolving for network security a more intuitive firewall that has multi-levels of protection.

3. Explain how Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) will help with these matters, what part will they play (Chapter 15).

GCR when broken down its part plays an effective role in helpin shore up your network security. Governance makes sure that everyone from admins to users is following the security policy rules. Compliance makes sure your company is following all laws that apply to your business’s network, and finally Risk management. One of the foundations of any information security programs is a robust risk management practice. If you don’t identify your risks, how do you know which security technologies to deploy and where. All these put together create an equilibrium that keeps the network in good order.


Steward, James M. Network Security Firewalls and VPNs. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011. Print.


Article writing

Write a 3-page paper (1000 words):

How does artificial intelligence impact games intelligence. Provide a game algorithm.

Provide examples and present your written findings. You must write a 3-page essay in APA format. You must include 3 scholarly reviewed references that are DIRECTLY related to the subject.

Socialwork discussion

First Read the Harjo Case Study.

Harjo Case Study

Also read through the supplemental information on the city of Globe.

Harjo Case Study-Globe Supplemental Information

. Then address the following questions in your response:

  1. What is 1 crisis or traumatic experience that has happened to your client, and how has it affected them? If you do not believe that your client has experienced trauma/crisis, what is one crisis/traumatic experience that could arise if the client does not receive proper care?
  2. Discuss 2 self-care techniques you would use to manage the emotional stress you would face as a social worker (Ex: hobbies, socializing, diet, exercise, etc.). Why do you think those two would help you the most?
  3. How does the criminal justice system play a role in your client’s life currently?
  4. How would you work with your client to prevent any future legal/justice issues?
  5. What is one question that you have about your case study/client and its relation to this week’s module material?


The Community of Globe, AZ

The total population of Globe, AZ, located in Gila County, was 7,532 according to the latest

census in 2010. The following tables will give you an idea of the demographics in the

community of Globe. Major industries in Globe include mining- specifically copper- which

employed 20% of the population. There is one fire department, and one public library.


Information ​Retrieved from ​


AZ – Globe city

Male 3,736

Female 3,796

Under 18 1,764

18 and



20-24 406

25-34 804

35-49 1,367

50 -64 1,622

65 & over 1,382


White 5,993

African American 69

Asian 85

AIAN 430


Some Other Race 722

Two or more




Hispanic or Latino 2,775

Not Hispanic or



Retrieved from

read 2 article and write 2 summary- each one will be 2-page

You will need to write two (2) current event summaries and analyses throughout the semester.  Each will be worth 50 points towards your final grade.  After identifying one article in The Economist that relates to one or more aspect(s) of the class material, you will need to write a (2) two-page summary on that article.  The article that you select to write upon CAN NOT be included in “The World This Week” section that appears on the first pages of each issue.  Articles printed in any other section of the magazine will be accepted.

Specific points to include in your summary are:

  1. title of article, author name, and date of publication,
  2. what the thesis statement of the article is,
  3. what main points the author makes in support of the article’s thesis statement,
  4. any supporting points/data the author includes to strengthen the article’s thesis statement,
  5. a thorough description of the economic theory concept (class material) the article is related to, and
  6. how the economic theory concept you selected is directly related to the article’s thesis statement.

Please note that many articles published within The Economist are published without naming an author.

This is because the articles are written collaborative between several staff members and the magazine does not believe in naming only one author.  If your article does not have an author named, please state “author unknown” in your summary analysis.

Summaries must be type-written, double-spaced using no larger than 12-point font and 1” margins on 8 ½” X 11” paper.

You may not use the same economic theory concept to analyze more than one of your articles.

Furthermore, any student submission that exceeds two pages (with stated specifications) will lose points for not adhering to length requirement.   The articles used for submission must be published after January 1, 2021.  Additionally, a hyperlink to the actual article analyzed must also be included at the end of your analysis.  Students who fail to include this hyperlink to their selected article will receive zero points for their work.  All student work must be submitted in a current version of Microsoft Word.  Files submitted via the course “assignments” page formatted in any other file format will not be graded.

In an effort to guide student work and ease the burden of grading for your instructor, all students summaries should also include the following two additional things.

  1. The thesis statement (as included in your written summary) must be highlighted.
  2. The student’s

    selected economic theory concept must be underlined


Sociology Discussion

This only needs to be about 1-2 paragraphs


What is stratification? What are the different social variables or areas/categories of stratification? What area/category of stratification do you think has most impacted your life? Explain.


Ethics and Information Management

Using University library and/or other sources, read at least two (2) academically reviewed articles on the ethical issues that may arise in information management. Please note that Wikipedia articles will not be accepted for this discussion.

1.    Write a comparative analysis of the articles noting the similarities and differences.

2.    Compare the information in those articles to the materials in Chapter 14 of your textbook. Does the premise of those articles support the overall theme of the materials in Chapter 14 of your textbook? Why or why not?

3.    Discuss what you learned from those articles. In your discussion, give example(s) of how your organization handles ethic concerns as they relate to information management.

4. Within your posting above, give your overall thoughts on employee monitoring.

Your main discussion should be at least 600 words or more. Please use your own words. Do not copy-and-paste.


IT for Management: On-Demand Strategies for Performance, Growth, and Sustainability

Eleventh Edition

Turban, Pollard, Wood

Chapter 14

Ethics, Privacy, and Sustainability

Learning Objectives (1 of 4)


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

IT Ethics

Predicting People’s Behavior

Predicting people’s behavior is big business, but companies may face backlash from customers or be subject to investigations or fines.

Mobile Apps and Risky Behaviors

93% top 200 free iOS & Andriod apps exhibited at least one risky behavior.

Apple policy prohibits user information gathering without permission, but countless 3rd party apps are unregulated.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Mobile Apps and Risky Behavior

Risky Behaviors

Location tracking

Accessing the device’s address book or contact list

Identifying user or phone unique identifier (UDID)

Recording in-app purchases

Sharing data with ad networks and analytics companies

Twitter, Foursquare, and Instagram routinely gather information from personal address books and other places on your phone.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Google Street View

Risky Behavior


Driving around sniffing out and mapping the physical location of the world’s Wi-Fi routers (see Wi-Spy).

Open Wi-Fi Networks

Non-password protected routers that provide access over wireless networks.

The FCC posted, “…collecting information sent over Wi-Fi networks clearly infringes on consumer privacy.”


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Additive Manufacturing Dilemmas

3D Printing

Depositing tiny layers of material to create computer-assisted design and/or computer-assisted manufacturing blueprints.


Using DNA to 3D print human body parts using bioprinting technology.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

IT Ethics

By avoiding illegal conduct, do companies also act responsibly? Explain your Answer

What types of companies can benefit from predicting people’s behavior?

When is predicting people’s behavior a violation of privacy? Give an example.

When is predicting people’s behavior not a violation of privacy? Give an example.

What are the ethical challenges attached to 3D printing and 3D bioprinting?

Research the current debate about 3D printing and bioprinting.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. No. What is legal is not necessarily ethical or responsible. Laws lag behind what is possible to do because laws change slowly whereas technology changes rapidly.

2. Virtually any type. The most benefit is for those at the end of the supply chain (retailers, etc.)

3. Answers may vary. Certainly when personal data upon which the prediction relies are collected without consent, as appears with Target, especially for those underage.

4. Answers may vary. It depends on the level of intrusiveness, and that can be very subjective. One might argue that Canadian Tire’s credit card business inherently has purchase information and can analyze to determine risk of missed payments.

5. Answers may vary. There are many. They range from legal to illegal activities (e.g., theft of intellectual property.) When demand is high, will living and/or nonliving medical organs/devices go to the highest bidder? Who is legally responsible for ensuring the quality of the resulting organs and devices? In some cases, 3D printing may be the only mechanism to produce an item. 3D printing is costly. In cases where non-additive manufacturing can do the same at less cost, which will be used?

6. Answers will vary.


Learning Objectives (2 of 4)


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Privacy and Civil Rights


Right, or freedom of choice and control to self-determine what information about you is made accessible, to whom, when, and for what use or purpose.

Breach of Privacy

Unauthorized disclosure of personal information.

Privacy Paradox

Phenomenon where social users are concerned about privacy but their behaviors contradict these concerns to an extreme degree.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 14.2: Major Data Breaches Reported by 1,040 Adult Americans in 2016 Pew Research Privacy and Security Study


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Privacy Paradox: Social Recruitment

Social Recruitment

Use of social media to engage, share knowledge among, and recruit and hire employees.

Often involving information the candidate did not want considered (or is illegal) to use in the hiring process.

Typical recruitment includes all job levels:


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Social Recruitment: Best Practices

Best practice provisions for recruiters:

Have either a third party or a designated person within the company who does not make hiring decisions do the background check.

Use only publicly available information. Do not friend someone to get access to private information.

Do not request username or passwords for social media accounts.

Recruiters are also social stalkers!


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Civil Rights: Protected Classes

Civil Rights

Rights protected by federal law, such as freedom of speech, press, and assembly; the right to vote, etc.

EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)

Enforces federal laws prohibiting discrimination in employment.

Protected classes

Characteristics identified by law that cannot be used in the hiring process.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Civil Rights: Discrimination


Biased or prejudicial treatment in recruitment, hiring, or employment based on certain characteristics, such as age, gender, and genetic information, and is illegal in the United States.

Corporate Social Media Discrimination

The use of protected class information to weed out candidates.

Social Media Discrimination

Visiting a person’s social media sites, however, clearly creates the opportunity to view large amounts of information going against these nondiscriminatory practices.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Civil Rights: Negligent Hiring

Competing Legal Concerns

Two competing legal concerns are discrimination & negligent hiring.

Negligent Hiring

If a workplace violence incident occurred and the attacker’s public social networking profile contained information that could have predicted that behavior, the employer may be held liable for negligence in not using readily available information during the hiring decision.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Reducing Risk of Negligent Hiring

Ask candidates to sign a disclosure statement

Allow self-disclosure

Create a standard process and document it

Consistent well-documented processes

Avoid coercive practices

Eliminate recruiter pressure for applicant disclosure


Emphasize related compliance


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Privacy Paradox, Privacy, and Civil Rights

Describe privacy.

What is the phenomenon where social users are concerned about privacy but their behaviors contradict these concerns?

What is the use of social media to find, screen, and select job candidates?

Rejecting a job candidate because of concerns about the person’s health from information on his or her Facebook page is an example of what?

Age, disability, gender, religion, and race are examples of what?

Why are the legal concepts of discrimination and negligent hiring competing demands on a business?


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Privacy is the right to self-determine what information about you is made accessible, to whom, when, and for what use or purpose. Privacy means we have freedom of choice and control over our personal information, including what we do not want shared with or used by others.

2. The privacy paradox refers to this phenomenon where social users are concerned about privacy but their behaviors contradict these concerns to an extreme degree. Users of social sites often claim that they are concerned about their privacy. At the same time, they disclose their highly personal lives, even content that is incriminating or illegal, in their profiles or posts.

3. Social recruitment refers to use of social media to find, screen, and select job candidates. Often it involves searching information the job candidate did not want considered or that is illegal to use in the hiring process.

4. This is an example of corporate social media discrimination.

5. Protected classes.

6. Two competing legal concerns are discrimination and negligent hiring. These put pressure on prospective employers to find out what they can about a potential employee, to avoid negligence in hiring, yet not cross the line into discrimination.

Discrimination. Most employers have stringent employment policies that prevent their recruiters and hiring managers from learning potentially discriminatory information about candidates. Visiting a person’s social media sites, however, clearly creates the opportunity to view large amounts of information going against these nondiscriminatory practices.

Negligent hiring. Employers must consider the potential risk of a negligent hiring or negligent retention lawsuit related to social networking profile information. It is possible that if a workplace violence incident occurred and the attacker’s public social networking profile contained information that could have predicted that behavior, the employer may be held liable for negligence in not using readily available information during the hiring decision.


Learning Objectives (3 of 4)


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Technology Addictions: Cognitive Overload

Cognitive Overload

Interferes with our ability to focus and be productive.

Potential modern causes:

Mobile apps

Wearable technology

Constant updates

Desire to stay connected

50% of American teens suffer from Fear Of Missing Out (FOMO)


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Focus Management

Being Able to Focus Counts

An inability to concentrate for longer periods reduces an ability to distinguish important information from trivia.

Some researchers estimate that distraction costs hundreds of billions of dollars a year in lost productivity.

Heavy online users (media high multitaskers) scored poorly on cognitive tests.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Focus Recovery

Lost focus can take about 25 minutes recovery time.

Noradrenaline, a chemical that helps us concentrate, is released by focusing.

The best strategy to improve focus: practice doing it.

There is disagreement if multitaskers are working as well as they could, or they could improve their focus.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Technology Addictions and Focus Management

What are several potential causes of cognitive overload?

What are the consequences of constant distractions?

When a person is distracted, how long does it take to return to the task at hand and get focused again?

Why are senior managers interested in focus management?

What is the difference between the performance of high and low multitaskers on cognitive tests?

How can multitaskers improve their ability to focus?


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Tweets, texts, e-mail, social media, and annoying electronic static are potential causes.

2. Distractions cause a loss of focus and a loss of productivity.

3. Gloria Mark, a professor of informatics at the University of California, Irvine, says a worker distracted by a Web search that goes rogue or a new text or tweet can take about 25 minutes to return to the task at hand and get focused again (Dumaine, 2014).

4. To improve creativity and productivity. If your mind is free of distraction, your mind is better able to absorb data, interactions, and trends and synthesize the new information with what you already know. As a result, you are more likely to come up with innovative ideas.

5. In contrast to widely held assumptions, subjects who were Media (high) multitaskers scored poorly on cognitive tests.

6. The best strategy to improve focus is to practice doing it.


Learning Objectives (4 of 4)


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


ICT and Sustainable Development

Being profit-motivated without concern for damage to the environment is unacceptable.

Companies should conduct themselves in an ethical, socially responsible, and environmentally sustainable manner.

The IT industry sector is called the Information and Communications Technology, or ICT, in emissions reports.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 14.1: The 4 R’s of environmental sustainability


IT and Global Warming

Global warming refers to the upward trend in Global Mean Temperature (GMT).

This is driven by the greenhouse effect, which is the holding of heat within the earth’s atmosphere.

Carbon emissions directly contribute to the greenhouse effect.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 14.1: The 4 R’s of environmental sustainability


Global Warming IT Sector Actions

McKinsey & Company conclude the following:

IT sector’s own footprint of 2 percent of global emissions could double by 2020 because of increased use of tablets, smartphones, apps, and services.

IT sector must continue to reduce emissions from data centers, telecom networks, and the manufacture and use of its products.

IT has the unique ability to monitor and maximize energy efficiency both within and outside of its own industry sector to cut CO2 emissions by up to 5 times this amount.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sustainability Through Climate Change Mitigation

Every IT user, enterprise, and nation plays a role in climate change mitigation.

Wired and mobile networks enable limitless data creation and consumption

Energy used to power data centers, cell towers, base stations, and recharge devices is damaging the environment and depleting natural resources.

Innovative sustainability initiatives hold the key to curbing these emissions and carbon footprint, thereby reducing environmental impact.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Technology to Transform Business and Society

People hold the power to shape and apply technology to create positive change, improve lives and transform business and society.

Accenture’s Technology Vision 2017 is an analysis of key IT trends that are expected to disrupt business and society over the next three years.

According to Vision 2017, taking a people first approach by empowering people with more human technology will allow organizations to improve performance by redefining their relationship with customers and employees from provider to partner.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Top Five Disruptive Technologies 2015-2017

Vision 2015 Vision 2016 Vision 2017
Internet of Me Intelligent Automation Artificial Intelligence as the new User Interface
Outcome Economy Liquid Workforce Design for Humans
Platform Evoluation Platform Economy Ecosystems as Macrocosms
Intelligent Enterprise Predictable Disruption Workforce Marketplace
Workplace Reimagined Digital Trust The Uncharted


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Top Five Disruptive Technologies (1 of 2)

AI is the new UI

AI is becoming the new user interface (UI), underpinning the way we transact and interact with systems.

AI will revolutionize the way businesses gain information from and interact with customers.

Design for Humans

Technology design decisions are being made by humans, for humans.

Organizations need to understand not only where people are today, but also where they want to be.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Top Five Disruptive Technologies (2 of 2)

Ecosystems as Macrocosms.

Digital ecosystems are transforming the way organizations deliver value.

Workforce Marketplace.

Companies are dissolving traditional hierarchies and replacing them with talent marketplaces of independent freelance workers.

The Uncharted.

Businesses must delve into uncharted territory, seizing opportunities to establish rules and standards for entirely new industries.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The Next Wave of Disruption

Next…More Disruptive Disruption

High-performing business leaders now accept that their organizations’ future success is tied to their ability to keep pace with technology.

Technology is more important than ever to their business success.

Biggest IT innovations will not be in the technology tools themselves, but in how they are designed with people in mind.

A people first approach is the key to any organization’s digital success.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

ICT and Sustainable Development

Why do some experts warn that carbon emission reductions between 50 percent and 85 percent are necessary by 2050?

What contributes to the rise of global mean temperature?

What is the greenhouse effect?

How does the use of mobile devices contribute to the level of greenhouse gases?

What is ICT’s role in global warming?

Why is global warming hotly debated?

What is the role of IT in sustainable development?

Why is it important for organizations to take a people first approach to IT?


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

Carbon emission reductions between 50 percent and 85 percent are necessary by 2050 to prevent the global temperature from rising too much too fast because of the greenhouse effect.

Increases in CO2 resulting from human activities that generate carbon emissions have thrown the earth’s natural carbon cycle off balance, increasing global temperatures and changing the planet’s climate. Climatologists estimated that countries must keep the global mean temperature (GMT) from rising by more than 2°C (3.6°F) above the preindustrial GMT in order to avoid profound damage to life on the earth. Damage includes water and food scarcity, rising sea levels, and greater incidence and severity of disease.

The greenhouse effect is the holding of heat within the earth’s atmosphere. CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap the sun’s heat with-in the earth’s atmosphere, warming it and keeping it at habitable temperatures.

The surge in energy used to power data centers, cell towers, base stations, and recharge devices, all of which support mobile devices, is damaging the environment and depleting natural resources.

ICT plays a key role in reducing global warming. Transforming the way people and businesses use IT could reduce annual human-generated global emissions by 15 percent by 2020 and deliver energy efficiency savings to global businesses of over 500 billion euros, or $800 billion U.S. And using social media, for example, to inform consumers of the grams (g) of carbon emissions associated with the products they buy could change buyer behavior and ultimately have a positive eco-effect.

Many scientists and experts are extremely alarmed by global warming and climate change, but other experts outright deny that they are occurring.

Every IT user, enterprise, and nation plays a role in climate change mitigation. Climate change mitigation is any action to limit the magnitude of long-term cli-mate change. Examples of mitigation include switching to low-carbon renewable energy sources and reducing the amount of energy consumed by power stations by increasing their efficiency.

According to Accenture’s Vision 2017, taking a people first approach by empowering people with more human technology will allow organizations to improve performance by redefining their relationship with customers and employees from provider to partner. This will require organizations to change the way they develop their business models and provide technology that support them to promote social responsibility.



Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.


Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Component #3.1

For Component #3 of the portfolio, you will:

  • Think about all of the ideas, theories, research studies, social issues, and case studies we have explored throughout the semester, then
  • Answer the following questions.
  • Your response to each set of questions should be be about one paragraph long (approximately 5-7 sentences) for a total of 3 paragraphs.

1. What is the number one social justice issue, contemporary cause, or political movement that is most important to you? Describe the issue/cause/movement and explain why it matters to you. Then, explain how MGMT 640 helps to change or deepen your awareness of this issue.

2. What can you do to get more involved with respect to this issue/cause/movement? How can you inform others of why this issue/cause matters to you and why it should perhaps matter to them? What are some opportunities for volunteering or service-learning that you could participate in that are related to this issue/cause? What long-term commitments are you willing to make to have an impact in this area? Be specific.

3. What kind of career/industry do you see yourself pursuing? How would you determine whether or not an organization is a good fit for you with respect to your JEDI values? How might you influence the organization to care about the cause/movement you described above, regardless of the position you hold?


10/26/2020 Seven Solutions That Could Help Stop Rape on the Night Shift :: Reader View

chrome-extension://ecabifbgmdmgdllomnfinbmaellmclnh/data/reader/index.html?id=8781&… 1/4 /wgbh/frontline/article/seven-solutions-that-could-help-stop-rape-on-the-night-shift/

Seven Solutions That Could Help Stop Rape on the Night

Bernice Yeung

12-15 minutes

In partnership with:

The night shift janitor is an easy target. Working in isolation, cleaners across the country say they have
been harassed, assaulted and raped by supervisors and co-workers while tidying office buildings,
shopping malls and universities, as our investigation exposed.

It’s an ugly phenomenon. But there are ways to tackle it. Some of them are simple, and some already
are being tested.

Take the isolation, for example.

Here’s how one of the women in our story, Erika Morales, described it:

There’s no one to ask for help when certain things happened and you screamed. No one
can hear. And there are certain places where there are no cameras. There’s no sound.
There’s nobody.

One promising solution that already has been tried with great success: switching janitors to the day shift.
When offices and stores are bustling, it’s less likely that a worker will be caught alone. In fact, day shift
cleaning is de rigueur in Canada and Europe.

In the United States, business owners often require companies to clean at night because they think
office workers or customers will be inconvenienced by it.

This hasn’t been the case in Minneapolis, where for the past five years, the county government building
has been cleaned during the day.

Javier Morillo-Alicea, president of Local 26 of the Service Employees International Union in Minneapolis,
said the arrangement has benefitted everyone. The building’s electricity bill has gone down by about
$100,000 per year because it no longer needs to be lit brightly at night. There are fewer complaints
about the quality of cleaning because concerns can be addressed immediately by the janitor. And
there’s lower turnover of janitors, who now work more family-friendly hours.

“It’s a win-win-win,” Morillo-Alicea said, “and it does eliminate the context where bad stuff can happen.”

This is just one of many potential solutions that could help address on-the-job sexual assault among
some of the country’s most invisible workers. Here’s a list of others:


We asked janitors from across the country what they’d like their bosses to do to help prevent workplace
harassment and assault. They told us that there’s a fix to the risky isolation of the night shift: team

In team cleaning, each worker takes on a specific task. It’s a system that can be a more efficient, but
janitorial companies have said it requires more expertise and training and demands more repetitive work
from the cleaners. Stephen Lerner, a labor leader, said team cleaning shouldn’t have a significant cost
for big companies, though it could be hard for those with few workers and sometimes can be used to
unfairly increase the workload. But done correctly, it could improve worker safety and cut down on
potential legal costs that come with being hit with harassment lawsuits.


Sexual assault and rape largely are crimes committed in private. Witnesses are rare, and even physical
evidence isn’t definitive proof of a crime.

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“The mythology in popular culture is that a rape victim is going to present to the emergency room,
battered with black eyes and with terrible bruising around the thighs, but the evidence is rarely that
clear,” said Joshua Marquis, a board member of the National District Attorneys Association and chief
prosecutor in Astoria, Oregon.

So whether a victim finds justice in the courts hinges almost entirely on the victim’s credibility.

That means a case’s fate might rest on whether a victim properly remembers details, such as the
calendar date or what she was doing right before being attacked. Defense attorneys seize on questions
like this. And workplace investigators, detectives, judges and juries can decide a woman isn’t credible
because she can’t get these details straight.

But a faulty memory can be a direct byproduct of trauma.

David Lisak, a leading clinical psychologist who specializes in sexual abuse, said there’s an extensive
body of neurobiology to explain a victim’s tenuous memory of an attack. He said that during a life-
threatening event, two chemicals – dopamine and norepinephrine – flood the brain. This has the effect
of jamming up how someone processes what is happening.

“What people notice when they go through an experience like that is they say they can’t think straight,”
said Lisak, a retired psychology professor at the University of Massachusetts Boston who has published
extensively on sexual violence.

These chemicals scramble the part of the brain that helps us remember things in order. Instead, a jarring
event “results in flashes of memory, intense fragments” that are completely disconnected from each
other in time, he said.

Taken out of context, the fitful memories of traumatized people can be devastating for their legal cases,
whether they’re criminal prosecutions or civil lawsuits.

“There are a lot of reasons why victims of sexual violence don’t receive justice,” Lisak said. “This, of
course, is one of them – the fact that we, investigators, are not yet trained the way we need to be.”

This is borne out in the numbers. The federal government says nine percent of sexual assaults and
rapes reported to the police result in an arrest – even though studies say only between two and
eight percent of all sexual assault accusations are false.

Lisak and experts like him are trying to address this misunderstanding head-on by training law
enforcement, the U.S. military and judges on how to interview victims and understand the ways that
sexual assault affects their memory.


It’s the job of state labor departments and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration to
make sure that workers are safe on the job. They have the authority to tackle workplace violence. But
Jordan Barab, OSHA’s deputy assistant secretary of labor for occupational safety and health, said he
does not know of any instances in which the agency has tackled a workplace rape case.

So people such as Vicky Marquez are doing the work that no one else seems willing to do.

She blasts through Orange County, California, in a Honda SUV, listening to syrupy love songs in
Spanish as the GPS on her phone directs her through a monotonous landscape of office parks. In the
dark, the buildings are almost beautiful in the way they glow from within. Sometimes, as Marquez pulls
into a parking space, she can make out the singular figure of a janitor, backlit in the window, passing
with a vacuum or wiping down a window.

Marquez works for the Maintenance Cooperation Trust Fund, a janitor watchdog group that is funded by
unionized cleaning companies. Through these nighttime expeditions to the hinterlands of Orange
County, Marquez – a former janitor herself – chats and charms her way into office buildings to uncover
labor problems among some of the hardest-to-reach workers. It’s through office building visits and
persistent follow-up phone calls that Marquez and a team of seven other undercover investigators like
her earn the workers’ trust.

In the process of meeting janitors where they are, the organization has discovered that the isolation of
night shift cleaning means that sexual assault is one of the unspoken occupational hazards workers can

It’s a model the government agencies could follow.

For more on the government angle, listen to KQED’s radio piece:


Because night shift janitors are some of the most invisible workers, the most important thing the public
can do is to talk to the company cleaning their offices.

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Does the janitorial firm have anti-harassment policies in place?
What do they do to make sure their workers are safe on the night shift?
Do they make it easy for workers to report sexual harassment? How?

There’s a lot of subcontracting in the janitorial industry, so you could also ask to learn more about who is
actually doing the cleaning in your building.

What’s clear from our reporting is that cleaning companies are eager to please the client – and that
could be you.


Companies, lawyers, law enforcement officers and advocates all say they can’t help unless someone
comes forward.

But reporting a rape or sexual assault can be difficult. Only one-third of sexual assault and rape victims
report the crime. It’s a taboo topic, people are afraid they won’t be believed or they just don’t want to
relive it. In the end, reporting the incident is a deeply personal choice.

But Jessica Ladd is trying to make it easier. She was assaulted in college. When she went to the school
administration and the police to report what had happened, she found the experience extremely

Today, as the founder and CEO of an organization called Sexual Health Innovations, she has developed
a website for universities called Callisto that walks a victim through all of the steps for reporting a sexual
assault or rape.

The system timestamps the victim’s anonymous and confidential online record, which could be helpful
later if the victim decides to pursue a legal case. So someone who has been assaulted can document
the incident right away, timestamp it and save the record until she is ready to send it to the police or
other authorities. Users also can submit their report to a centralized database that can monitor for repeat

Callisto is being tested at the University of San Francisco and Pomona College starting in August. Ladd
hopes to add languages besides English, and she’s planning to explore ways to adapt the program for
companies that want to use it as a tool to address workplace sexual harassment and assault.

In the meantime, the technology is based on open-source code, so an enterprising, tech-savvy person
can find it on GitHub come August and could get working on adapting the program right away.


Severe sexual harassment is undeniably a challenging issue for employers to deal with – especially on
the night shift.

Companies can’t stop bad things from happening altogether, but they can draft anti-harassment policies
and create straightforward ways to report a problem. They also can do regular training to make sure
everyone on staff knows how to identify sexual harassment and what to do if something happens.

But none of those things matter unless bosses respond quickly and effectively to complaints of
harassment. Louise Fitzgerald, a University of Illinois professor emeritus who designed the way
researchers measure workplace sexual harassment, said studies have consistently shown one thing: “If
a company sends a strong message that it does not tolerate this behavior, there will be less sexual

Because these often are he-said, she-said cases, company internal investigations can end in a draw –
they’re deemed inconclusive. That can effectively send the message that concerning behavior will be

But companies often misunderstand the standard of proof that they are being held to when investigating
a sexual harassment complaint, said Stephen Hirschfeld, CEO of the Employment Law Alliance, a
global network of attorneys who represent companies.

“You are not held to the standard of the courtroom,” he said. “You are not a lawyer or a judge. You are
held to the standard of common sense.”

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which is responsible for policing companies for
sexual harassment, is trying to take things a step further. It has convened a special task force to figure
out how to solve workplace harassment.

If you have ideas on how to prevent sexual harassment, let the commission know – it is currently taking
suggestions from the public.

This story was edited by Andrew Donohue and copy edited by Nikki Frick.

Bernice Yeung can be reached at

[email protected]

Follow her on Twitter: @bmyeung.

Related Film: Rape on the Night Shift

HRM Case Analysis

Human Resource Management Case Question

Three Questions, Words limit: 500


Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253–273 / locate / econbase

The software industry and India’s economic development
a b ,*Ashish Arora , Suma Athreye

Heinz School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University,

5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Faculty of Social Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK


This paper assesses the contribution of software to India’s economic development, paying
particular attention to the role of software in the absorption of labour and the development
of human capital in the economy. The success of the software industry has increased the
relative value of professional workers, not only programmers, but also managers and
analysts. The growing importance of human capital, in turn, has led to innovative models of
entrepreneurship and organization, pioneered by the software sector, and these are slowly
taking root and spreading to other sectors of India’s industry. A potentially important and
under-appreciated contribution of the software industry is thus its exemplar of good
entrepreneurship and corporate governance to the rest of India. Though less visible than the
macro contributions to employment and foreign exchange, this role is a source of
productivity improvement for all industries, and can have powerful long-term benefits for
India’s industrialization and growth.  2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Indian software; Software exports; Software and growth; Human capital and development

JEL Classification: F1; I2; L8; J5; O0

1. Introduction

In little over a decade, India has emerged as a major exporter of software in the
international economy. This remarkable feat has been accomplished through the
extraordinary growth of Indian software which, in the last 5 years, expanded at a
compound annual rate of 56%. More than two-thirds of this was due to exports,

*Corresponding author. Tel.: 144-1908-65-45-56; fax: 144-1908-65-44-88.
E-mail addresses:

[email protected]

(A. Arora),

[email protected]

(S. Athreye).

0167-6245 / 02 / $ – see front matter  2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
P I I : S 0 1 6 7 – 6 2 4 5 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 6 9 – 5

254 A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273

making the industry a major export earner for the country. The proportion of
software exports to merchandise exports grew from a negligible amount in 1990 to
over 6% in 1998–1999. Remarkably, these software exports are largely due to the
efforts of domestic rather than foreign firms. Of the top 20 exporters in 1998–
1999, only six firms were foreign subsidiaries.

The software industry contributes 1% of India’s GNP, but has accounted for
over 7% of the growth of its GNP (Kumar, 2000a,b). In 1997, the software
industry employed 160,000 of the total employed workforce of 28.245 million.
Employment in the industry, although constituting only a small fraction of the
total, has grown quickly and estimates for the year 2000 suggest that there will be
over 410,000 IT professionals employed in India.

Can the software sector continue to contribute significantly to economic growth,
and what forms are these contributions likely to take? To answer this question, we
begin by examining in Section 2 the factors that have contributed to India’s
emerging specialization in software exports. We argue that software services are
intensive in human capital and the abundant supply of engineers in the country
provides not only an absolute wage advantage, but also a comparative advantage.
In Section 3 we review the factors that constrain the current growth of the software
industry on the supply side, in particular the role of underinvestment in literacy
and in telecommunications infrastructure. Section 4 analyses the contribution of
software growth to human capital formation. High earnings in software have
resulted in considerable private investment in training, and the subsequent
emergence of a successful self-financing model of tertiary education in some parts
of the country. Section 5 analyses the impact of software on productivity
improvements through the linkage effects of software in the domestic economy.
We conclude that this mechanism of productivity improvement is of limited
importance in the Indian context. Section 5 emphasizes the role of high software
salaries versus the rest of India’s industry in creating productivity-inducing
organizational improvements in software. We also analyse the role of software
firms as organizational exemplars. Section 6 summarizes our main conclusions.

2. Factors favouring the growth of software revenues in India: the role of
comparative and absolute advantages

Software is not just another industry. The number of companies that produce
software or employ software developers is much greater than the set of firms
commonly thought of as software firms, such as Microsoft or Oracle. Indeed, large
banks, insurance companies, finance companies, and virtually every organization
above a certain size all develop a great deal of software. Much of this software is
either developed for a particular user, or consists of a standard ‘platform’ such as a
SAP ERP system or an Oracle accounting system, and is customized to the needs
of the user organization. Once in place, these systems have to be maintained and

A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273 255

enhanced. Some observers claim that over two-thirds of all software development
efforts are spent in maintaining and enhancing existing software codes, rather than
producing new software (Raymond, 1999).

Despite the steady growth of software technology and tools, software develop-
ment is still labour intensive and requires relatively little capital. Estimates by
Lakha (1994) suggest that labour costs accounted for about 70% of all software

1costs in the early 1990s. With the information technology revolution taking hold
in the 1990s, the demand for IT workers in the developed world has steadily
surpassed supply. However, a fairly substantial fraction of these activities can be
outsourced and are increasingly conducted away from the user organization. This
outsourcing demand has formed the basis of the initial growth of the software
industry in India.

The needs of software production seem particularly suited to the resource
endowments of the Indian economy. Moreover, scale economies are not a
significant barrier to entry. A firm can—and many do—start off as little more than
one software development team. Others have started as temporary employment
agencies, requiring a few rooms in which to set up a handful of PCs and a
telephone. Further, the production of software is not heavily dependent on physical
infrastructure such as roads and ports, although a steady supply of electrical power
is critical, as is ready access to PCs, workstations and communication, airports,
phones, faxes and increasingly, the Internet.

The initial growth of the software service industry was facilitated by the
enlightened ‘hands off’ policies of the government of India. By the late 1980s and
early 1990s, PC prices had fallen steadily, as had the prices of other equipment.
The government allowed liberal imports of both hardware and software tools, and
firms were able to provide their own electrical power through a variety of sources,
including self-generation. As Table 1 shows, this growth of software revenue came

2disproportionately from exports, and thus it is worth exploring the nature of
India’s advantage in software exports.

Tables 2 and 3 show the extent of the absolute (labour) cost advantage.

1 With the decrease in hardware prices and the increase in the wages of software professionals, this
estimate is likely to be on the low side for the late 1990s. Furthermore, the cost of software is the
dominant budgetary item in setting up computerized systems in the west. As the process of
computerization accelerates in the world economy, the demand for software will continue to increase.

2 As many early observers (Heeks, 1996; D’Costa, 1998) have noted, this initial growth was
markedly dependent on export demand, was based on relatively unsophisticated services, and often was
little more than the provision of temporary workers to overseas customers. Arora et al. (2000a) also
found that for the most part, Indian software firms were generalists, specializing in terms of neither
technology nor vertical industry domains, but competing largely on cost with relatively little to
differentiate one from the other. One implication of this is that the firms surrender the lion’s share of
the rents to customers so the net benefits of the mushrooming software industry and its growing
productivity are largely passed on to customers, prominently the US which accounts for over 60% of
India’s total exports of software.

256 A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273

Table 1
Growth of software revenues ($ million)

Year Export revenues Domestic revenues

1984 22 –
1985 26 –
1986 38 –
1987 54 –
1989 / 90 105 –
1994 / 95 485 350
1995 / 96 734 490
1996 / 97 1085 670
1997 / 98 1750 950
1998 / 99 2650 1250

Source: Lakha (1994) for figures up to 1989 / 90; Kumar (2000a,b) for all other years.

Amongst developed countries, only Greece shows similar levels in the salaries of
software professionals. If one concentrates on the availability of scientists and
engineers (Table 3), India has one of the largest reserves of these professionals in
the world, almost all of whom speak English.

Table 3 also highlights two other factors. Firstly, India has the potential of
expanding this reserve with appropriate investments in primary and secondary
education. Secondly, countries such as China and Russia have an even greater
supply of trained scientists and engineers. If they were to train a proportion of their
scientists in English, these countries could participate more fully in the internation-

Table 2
International differences in salaries paid to software professionals, 1995 (US$)

Switzerland USA Canada UK Ireland Greece India

Project leader 74,000 54,000 39,000 39,000 43,000 24,000 23,000
Business analyst 74,000 38,000 36,000 37,000 36,000 28,000 21,000
Systems analyst 74,000 48,000 32,000 34,000 36,000 15,000 14,000
Systems designer 67,000 55,000 36,000 34,000 31,000 15,000 11,000
Development programmer 56,000 41,000 29,000 29,000 21,000 13,000 8000
Support programmer 56,000 37,000 26,000 25,000 21,000 15,000 8000
Network analyst / designer 67,000 49,000 32,000 31,000 26,000 15,000 14,000
Quality assurance specialist 71,000 50,000 28,000 33,000 29,000 15,000 14,000
Database data analyst 67,000 50,000 32,000 22,000 29,000 24,000 17,000
Metrics / process specialist 74,000 48,000 29,000 31,000 – 15,000 17,000
Documentation / training staff 59,000 36,000 26,000 21,000 – 15,000 8000
Test engineer 59,000 47,000 25,000 24,000 – 13,000 8000

Source: / idpm / isicost.htm.

A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273 257

Table 3
Reserve of technically trained personnel, selected countries, 1995

Country Adult illiteracy Scientists / engineers in Population, Reserve of
rates (%) R&D per million of millions scientists / engineers

population 1995 1995
Males Females 1981–1995

USA – – 3732 263 981,516
Japan – – 5677 125 709,625
Russian Fed. – – 4358 148 644,984
China 10 27 537 1200 644,400
Germany – – 3016 82 247,312
France – – 2537 58 147,146
UK – – 2417 59 142,603
India 35 62 151 929 140,279
Israel – – 4826 6 28,956
Vietnam 4 9 334 73 24,382
Turkey 8 28 209 61 12,749
Hungary – – 1157 10 11,570
Greece – – 774 10 7740
Ireland – – 1871 4 7484

Source: World Bank, World Development Reports (1997) and (1999).

al software industry. But the dynamics of the software industry comes into play as
well. As we argue below, the head start enjoyed by the Indian software industry
will hurt the prospects of the late comers.

The explanation of the growth of software exports from a country like India
because of lower labour costs is well known. It also underlies a somewhat
pessimistic outlook for the future of these exports and the software industry. Once
the surplus of trained labour is depleted, the cost advantage erodes, making India
less attractive in comparison to China and Russia, for instance, as the source for
lower value-added services (Heeks, 1996). The absence of a sizeable domestic
market will compound the problem by depriving the country’s software exporters
of the experience needed to ultimately enable them to produce higher value-added
services and products (D’Costa, 1998). In this respect, the only option is for India
to develop a sizeable domestic market and reduce its export dependence.

This, however, introduces a dilemma. Perhaps the main reason for the absence
of a large and sophisticated domestic market is a relatively unsophisticated
economy, which has, until recently, grown at 3.5% per year. Thus, the develop-
ment of a sizeable domestic software market is likely to be a consequence as much
as it is a cause of the growth of this particular industry. Indeed, Arora et al.
(2000a) find that conditions between the domestic market and exports market are
so diverse that knowledge and experience gained from domestic projects are either

258 A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273

not applicable, or too costly for overseas customers. Arora et al. conclude that
3,4domestic market experience is not particularly valuable for the export market.

Another way of looking at the growth of software exports is to determine
whether India enjoys an underlying comparative advantage in software production

`vis-a-vis the rest of the world. If such a comparative advantage does exist, both the
absolute cost advantage and favourable circumstances such as the demand caused
by the millennium scare could provide the experience and scale of output needed
for dynamic learning processes to kick in and positively influence the growth of
the sector’s productivity. In this scenario, the future of Indian software exports is
not entirely bleak and increasing productivity could compensate for the erosion of
the labour cost advantage.

Productivity levels measured as revenue per employee are lower in India than in
other parts of the world (notably Ireland and especially Israel). More importantly,
however, compared to other countries, software in India is far more productive
than other sectors—the essence of a comparative advantage argument. This is clear
when we compare the ratio of labour productivity in software. It is twice that of

5India’s manufacturing and 1.3 times that of the US (Table 4). The picture is
similar for Israel, another country with a fast growing software industry. In an
open economy, both India and its trading partners benefit from the country’s
specialization in software, and implicitly its imports in less productive economic
sectors such as manufacturing. The distribution of these gains is a moot point, of
course. Given the country’s heavy reliance on the US for software exports and
their undifferentiated nature, it seems likely that productivity improvements in
Indian software produce greater benefits for the US rather than India.

Although the share of software production in India’s industrial output, exports
and employment is increasing, its share in the world market remains low. The
picture changes somewhat when we look at only the share of the country’s
customized software in the global market: this is estimated to have gone up from
11.9% in 1991 to 18.5% in 1999 (Kumar, 2000b).

Limited infrastructure continues to constrain the industry. The most important of

3 This conclusion, however, is conditioned by the types of export projects: simple, small and not very
sophisticated. In short, there may be the ‘chicken and egg’ problem. Given the nature of export
projects, sophisticated domestic projects may be of little value, but overseas customers appear
unwilling to outsource projects that would enable Indian firms to acquire the necessary experience.

4 A more compelling argument is that the domestic market could be the source for particular types of
differentiation, for example, software for multiple languages and using multiple scripts, and for mutual
translation. This could be a source of competitive advantage in countries with more than one language
where forms, and government and corporate publications have to be in multiple languages. Alter-
natively, growth in the level and sophistication of domestic demand may finally provide companies
with an easy way to ‘break’ into foreign markets by demonstrating their capabilities. These may yet
happen, as the industry matures into more differentiated and distinct segments.

5 We use value-added as the index of labour productivity in manufacturing and revenue per
employee as the index of labour productivity in software where few material inputs are needed for

A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273 259

Table 4
Comparative advantage in software production across selected countries, 1995

All manufacturing Software Comparative advantage
Revenue per

Output per Value added per Index 1 Index 2
employee (3)

employee (1) employee (2) (3) /(1) (3) /(2)

($’000) ($’000)

Israel 112.20 38.30 100.00 0.89 2.61
Ireland 242.20 117.10 142.24 0.59 1.22
India 20.80 4.10 8.93 0.43 2.18
France 205.13 77.143 161.32 0.79 2.09
Finland 231.92 76.16 83.46 0.36 1.10
USA 206.00 98.20 126.02 0.61 1.28

Sources: authors’ computations from the following data sources: data in columns (1) and (2) are
taken from the UN Industrial Statistics (1998 and 1999) published by UNCTAD. Exchange rates used
to convert local currencies into dollars are taken from line rf of the International Financial Statistics
published by the International Monetary Fund. Data in column (3) are derived from the following
national and international sources: India from NASSCOM (; Israel from Israeli
Association of Software Houses (http: / /; Ireland from National Software Directorate
(http: / /, Ireland, and France, Finland and USA from The Software Sector: A Statistical
Profile for Selected OECD Countries (OECD http: / / / dsti / sti / it / infosoc / index.htm).
Figures for Israel are obtained by dividing Israeli software revenues by estimated employment. Figures
for Ireland are obtained by excluding multinationals from the calculation, which may therefore,
underestimate revenue per employee in software.

these are the availability of power and the quality of the telecommunications
infrastructure (bandwidth and, increasingly, limited telephone penetration). In
1996, India had 15 main telephone lines per 1000 people, compared with 395 per
1000 for Ireland and 446 per 1000 for Israel. The situation is more serious when
we consider the penetration of PCs in the total population: 1.5 computers per 1000
people versus 145 for Ireland and 117.6 for Israel (WDR 1998 / 99). It is difficult
to estimate accurately the extent to which infrastructure constraints have affected
productivity. Some indirect evidence, however, is available. Costs for power are
the second highest expenditure and many software firms generate their own

6power. Low bandwidths are also a problem. While current bandwidths are
adequate for simple tasks, they could become an obstacle to more complex, higher
value-added projects being awarded to the same firms. For the newly emerging
area of e-commerce, the lack of telephone penetration will emerge as an important
problem. Here, too, the solutions point to the nature of the problem. Mobile phone
penetration (which does not require land lines) experienced the most rapid growth
in smaller towns. In this context, the development of mobile telephony and
Internet products presents a window of opportunity and growth inasmuch as

6 A manager of a leading software firm noted that spending on diesel power generators was the
second largest item of the firm’s capital expenditure budget. This firm claims to have generated 4 MW
in 1997, the year in which the interview took place.

260 A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273

demand for these is not constrained by telephone lines, or by literacy on the part of
mobile phones.

3. Can the Indian success be replicated? Implications for other developing

Many researchers have predicted competition from other labour-abundant
countries such as China, or even Russia and Ukraine, where economic woes have
resulted in large reserves of underemployed engineers and scientists. Countries,
including China, are reportedly investing heavily to introduce English language
skills to their engineers. Undoubtedly, the current market shares of these countries
could be increased—and increased substantially—if abundant skilled labour were
the sole determinant of success. But the success of the software industry also
reflects a certain level of entrepreneurial and managerial capabilities, as well as the
importance of strong links with major markets. In the case of India, these are
expatriates working in high-level technical and managerial positions in the west,
primarily in the US.

Such links helped Indian entrepreneurs to respond quickly to the growing
demand for software services. At a minimum, this meant the ability to recruit
programmers, and arrange for and manage outsourcing contracts. As the firms
grew, so did the challenges. Successful enterprises developed capabilities that
became the source of India’s competitive advantage. Interviews with US managers
reported in Arora et al. (2000a) highlight the importance placed by American
companies on the ability of the Indian firms to mobilize large teams of developers
at short notice. This, in turn, places demands on the firms to develop substantial
expertise in recruiting, screening, training and, as discussed earlier, retaining
software professionals. As discovered in Russia, this is no trivial matter. Russian
firms reportedly complain that getting foreign companies to overcome their
hesitation of doing business with the country is a major obstacle to offshore
programming. Paucity of quality control and proper management are also
handicaps, despite a substantial cost advantage in wages. Russia trails behind India
in the number of companies with the ISO 9000 certification (Santana, 2001).

Furthermore, Indian firms are increasing productivity by improving their
software development processes, by moving up the value chain, and by developing
proprietary development tools (Table 5). More recent entrants in the industry have
also had some success at developing products. Arora et al. (2000a) find that larger
firms (with more than 250 employees) earn $8000–10,000 per employee more than
smaller ones. The number of such large firms has increased over time. Similarly,
Arora et al. (2000a) report that Indian firms rated at CMM level 3 or higher earn
about $6000–10,000 per employee more than firms without this qualification. As

A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273 261

Table 5
India’s manpower and revenues / man-year

Year Manpower Revenue per employee ($)

1993–1994 90,000 6198.5
1994–1995 118,000 6998
1995–1996 140,000 8924.5
1996–1997 160,000 11,036
1997–1998 180,000 15,000
1998–1999 250,000 15,600

Source: Arora et al. (2000a, Table 1b).

7many as 32 Indian software firms have received the SEI-CMM certification and
more than half the companies with the CMM 4 and 5 ratings are in India.

These ratings demonstrate the significant organizational capability in software
development that has been built up over the last decade, making it difficult for

8other global companies to compete. More importantly, competitors have to
contend with higher market visibility and the business connections Indian firms
have been able to establish. Out of Fortune’s 500 companies, 185 now outsource
their software production to India. Indeed, onsite services have given way to more
profitable offshore services with dedicated software centres, an indication of the
trust US and European firms have in the quality of Indian software services.
Although not insurmountable, these are formidable barriers for others to overcome,
including the country’s own late entrants to the industry. Thus, we are likely to see
established Indian firms leverage their reputation and capability by outsourcing to
China and elsewhere, as TCS, Wipro and Infosys are reported to be considering
(Sengupta, 2001). Similarly, a large Chinese telecom firm, Huawei Technologies,
has set up an R&D centre in Bangalore where 180 Chinese programmers work
alongside the locals. In other words, rather than a zero sum game, China and other
nations may be able to participate in the international division of software labour
through collaboration with India.

7 CMM (Capability Maturity Model) is a structured process for software development associated
with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. It consists of five ‘maturity’
levels. Companies or units assessed at level four and five are capable of controlling, managing and
improving software development practices. Though initially developed as a means of providing
improved software systems for the Department of Defence in the US, the CMM is becoming popular
among Indian software service firms as a means of signalling their capability to overseas clients,
particularly in the US.

8 Arora et al. (2000a) do not, however, find any difference in the productivity of younger and older

262 A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273

4. The growth of software and human capital formation: public and
private investments in training and the rewards to an engineering


Although India has a large number of scientists and engineers, it also has one of
the lowest literacy rates in the world; 52% of the total working population are
illiterate. As Table 3 shows, despite the vast reserve of engineers, their number per
million is smaller than in several other countries. There is a corresponding
over-reliance on the current reserve of trained but underemployed engineers, for
whom the slowly growing and protected economy cannot generate adequate

A large proportion of the employees in software firms are college graduates, as
highlighted by a sample survey of nearly 60 software firms who reported that over
80% of their employees had engineering degrees. Only 13% were non-engineers

10trained in software development.
This preference for engineers was unremarkable and of little consequence at the

start of the industry, when demand versus annual supply was small. Currently,
over 160,000 engineers from all disciplines graduate every year. The sharp and
sustained growth of the software industry had increased its workforce to nearly
250,000 by 1998–1999, and estimates suggest that this may reach 400,000 in the
years 2000–2001. If the software industry continues to grow at 50% per year, then
there will be a shortage of engineers, regardless of productivity improvements (see

11Arora et al. (2001) for more details).
These projections are consistent with other evidence. Wages in the software

industry have risen over 20% per annum and attrition rates are high. In 1998–1999
in a sample of over 100 enterprises, more than half of the firms, irrespective of
age, size or market orientation, reported the shortage of manpower and employee
attrition (Arora et al., 2000a) to be among the three main problems. Virtually all
firms find it difficult to attract and retain talented software developers despite
wages that are substantially above Indian standard.

Public policy has responded with increased investments in engineering colleges,
placing greater emphasis on information technology in engineering curricula and
on the creation of institutes of information technology (IIIT) similar to the better

9 This section draws heavily upon Arora et al. (2001).
10 An earlier study (NASSCOM, 1999) reported that only 2% of all software developers trained in

private training institutes join software development firms.
11 Recognizing the importance of this fact, many Indian policymakers have called for an ‘educational

emergency’ declaration to ensure that the supply of skilled software developers is increased. Several
CEOs of the smaller software development firms and NASSCOM (the professional association
representing the views of these firms) have begun to argue that the shortage of skilled labour is
constraining their ability to grow. (See also Basic Background Report (BR-3) for the National Task
Force on Information Technology (IT) and Software Development (SD) submitted to the Prime
Minister of India, 18th March 1999.)

A. Arora, S. Athreye / Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253 –273 263

known Indian Institutes of Technology. Though superficially reasonable, this is not
the answer. These investments are unlikely to have a significant effect on supply in
the short run. Moreover, expansion of …