CJ:Week2:Discussion 1

The Evolution of Terrorist Groups

Terrorist groups have been in existence for thousands of years. For example, in the first century Jewish Zealots were fighting to keep Roman rule out of Judea. Today, Al Qaeda fights against perceived enemies of Islam. In some ways, modern terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda resemble their ancient ancestors in terms of their motivations and some of their tactics; in other ways, they are considerably different. In this Discussion, you consider characteristics that distinguish modern terrorist groups from those in existence prior to 1990. Then you reflect on how terrorist groups have evolved. Examining the evolution of terrorist groups is a useful tool in determining future terrorist threats, which you will do later on in the course.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review Chapter 5 in the course text

    Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism with an Emergency Management Perspective

    and the book excerpt, “Two Thousand Years of Terror.” Reflect on the evolution of terrorism and pay particular attention to the differences between historic terrorist groups and contemporary terrorist groups.

  • Review the course media, “The Spectrum of Terrorist Groups.” Focus on the distinct characteristics of the terrorist groups discussed and consider how they developed.

  • Review Chapter 2 in the course text

    Terrorism in Perspective

    . Consider the characteristics of historic terrorist groups and their changing philosophies over time.

  • Think about the differences in characteristics between contemporary groups and those in existence prior to 1990.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 4

an analysis of the characteristics that distinguish contemporary terrorist groups from those in existence prior to 1990. Then, explain at least one insight you had or conclusion you drew about the evolution of terrorist groups based on completing this assignment.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.


  • Course Text:

    Mahan, S., & Griset, P. L. (2013).

    Terrorism in perspective

    (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.

    • Chapter 2, “History of Terrorism”
    • Chapter 3, “International Terrorism”
    • Chapter 4, “Terrorist Tactics Around the Globe” (pp. 147–154)
    • Chapter 5, “Homegrown Terrorism in the United States”

  • Course Text:

    McEntire, D. A. (2019).

    Introduction to homeland security: Understanding terrorism with emergency management

    (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

    • Chapter 5, “Uncovering the Dynamic Nature of Terrorism: History of Violence and Change Over Time”

  • Book Excerpt:

    Martin, G. (2006).

    Two Thousand Years of Terror

    Click for more options
    . In G. Martin (Ed.),

    Understanding terrorism: Challenges, perspectives, and issues

    (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Website:

    U.S. Department of State (n.d.).

    Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    . Retrieved from


  • Website:

    U.S. Department of State. (2004).

    Terrorist exclusion list

    . Retrieved from



Application: Comparing Terrorist Groups

In the readings this week, many different terrorist groups, historic and contemporary, are discussed. While these and other terrorist groups may share some commonalities, it is important to keep in mind that no two terrorist groups are exactly the same. Each terrorist group can be unique in terms of their membership, goals and objectives, and tactics they use to carry out acts of terror. For instance, one terrorist group may engage in assassinations and suicide bombings while another may engage in hijackings and the use of weapons of mass destruction. Public administrators and policymakers must be aware of such differences and create distinct policies and strategies aimed at combating terrorism promulgated by specific terrorist groups.

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review Chapter 2 in the course text

    Terrorism in Perspective

    . Consider the characteristics of historic terrorist groups.
  • Review Chapter 3 in the course text

    Terrorism in Perspective

    . Think about the characteristics of international terrorist groups.
  • Review Chapter 5 in the course text

    Terrorism in Perspective

    . Reflect on the characteristics of homegrown terrorist groups.
  • Review the assigned pages of Chapter 4 in the course text

    Terrorism in Perspective

    . Consider the tactics that terrorist groups might use to carryout acts of terror.
  • Select two terrorist groups to compare. You may select any terrorist groups mentioned in the Learning Resources, those identified on the U.S. Department of State Web page ”

    Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    ,” or those on the U.S. Department of State’s Terrorist Exclusion List Web page.


    Please scroll down the page for the list of designees.
  • Think about the similarities and differences between the groups you selected in terms of geographic location, membership, motivations, objectives, and tactics.

The assignment (2 pages): The Groups are:

Domestic right-wing terrorist groups and domestic terrorists left-wing groups

  • Briefly describe the terrorist groups you selected.
  • Compare (similarities and differences) the groups in terms of:

    • Geographic location
    • Membership
    • Motivations
    • Objectives
    • Tactics
  • Explain at least one insight you had or conclusion you drew about terrorist groups as a result of your comparison.

Support your Application with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources


included in the Learning Resources for this course.

Submit your assignment by Day 7.


You have been hired as the CSO (Chief Security Officer) for an organization. Your job is to develop a very brief computer and internet security policy for the organization that covers the following areas:

  • Computer and email acceptable use policy
  • Internet acceptable use policy

Make sure you are sufficiently specific in addressing each area. There are plenty of security policy and guideline templates available online for you to use as a reference or for guidance. Your plan should reflect the business model and corporate culture of a specific organization that you select. Include at least 3 scholarly references in addition to the course textbook.   At least two of the references cited need to be peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles from the library. Your paper should meet the following requirements:

  • Be approximately 2 pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.
  • Follow APA7 guidelines. Your paper should include an introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.
  • Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least three scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook.
  • Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing.

CJUS 801-Discussion Forum 5-reply 1

Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.

Textbook: Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015).

Practical program evaluation for criminal justice

. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455777709.


Doing No Harm

According to McCord (2003), researchers seek evidence to demonstrate that a prevention program is effective but should not rely on asking if it works as some treatments cause harm. McCord (2003) stressed that safety concerns are as important as efficacy. Furthermore, McCord (2003) believed that social harm may come at a higher cost than physical harm. McCord (2003) claimed there was a strong bias in reporting adverse effects of social programs that caused harm. Despite a prevention program’s best efforts, it can still cause some potential harm.

Khorasheh et al. (2019) recommended that more evaluations and research should be conducted on harm reduction training for police officers. The researchers’ viewpoints are in alignment with the Bible. Luke 10:19 provides, “I have given you authority to trample on snakes and scorpions and to overcome all the power of the enemy; nothing will harm you” (

The NIV Study Bible

, 1995). Satan is the enemy. Even though the body perishes, the soul does not. Thus, if a believer dies, the spirit lives on. Drugs, for example, can be viewed as an enemy, and the prevention program is the harm reduction plan. D.A.R.E. is an example of a drug prevention program. Part of a police officer’s duties is to respond to calls for service and protection of the people. Apart from rogue police officers, most will have a “do no harm” value system.

Psalm 82:3-4 states, “Defend the cause of the weak and fatherless; maintain the rights of the poor and oppressed. Rescue the weak and needy; deliver them from the hand of the wicked” (

The NIV Study Bible

, 1995). Throughout the Bible there are similar verses that prove that man should do the right thing and help fellow men. Man is not to merely listen or give advice to someone who is weak, but to do something about it, which requires an action to be taken. The action in this case would be through a prevention program. In the Bible verse, there are action words listed, and God expects Christians to act not just verbalize.

Vito and Higgins (2015) further stress that the aim is to prevent harm while promoting a research design that will produce relevant and valid results. There can be political pressure along the process as some may believe that the benefits of the program would outweigh the potential harm caused (Vito & Higgins, 2015). The evaluator should seek to maximize the benefits, but also minimize any potential harm that could occur (Vito & Higgins, 2015). Objectivity should be maintained to allow the evaluator’s credibility remains intact (Vito & Higgins, 2015). Vito and Higgins (2015) discussed problem-oriented policing (POP), which requires that a systematic process for addressing community crime problems. In Baltimore County, Maryland and Newport News, Virginia, crime, and the fear of crime were significantly reduced because of police officers concentrating on the underlying causes of crime. Braga (2017) pointed out that perceptions of citizens regarding police crime control effectiveness were found to be related to police legitimacy. Furthermore, Braga (2017) advised that police departments must be careful in establishing crime prevention policies without generating harm to the community.


Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.

Textbook: Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015).

Practical program evaluation for criminal justice

. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455777709.


Ethics play a critical role in the practice and research of criminal justice. Criminal justice is about safety and ensuring individual rights at the same time. It is incumbent upon those that practice criminal justice and conduct criminal justice research, to do no harm. When it comes to research, ethical concerns are paramount. The moral process in research is based on the law and principles outlined in the Belmont Report. The three main principles of the report are respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. Respect for persons means that those in the study or research do so of their own free will. Beneficence means that the research does no harm to the participants and seeks to do good. Justice implies that research’s benefits and burdens are fairly distributed (Maxfield & Babbie, 2018).  According to Vito and Higgins (2015), ethics covers both how the research is done and the researcher’s actions. Research and the application of programs should be based on science and fact, not emotion and assumptions. The Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study, Court Volunteers, and Scared Straight are examples of presumption of good that were wrong (McCord, 2003).

The concept of not causing harm and being personally neutral in judgment, a cornerstone of research and criminal justice is well documented in the Bible.

You shall do no injustice in judgment. You shall not be partial to the poor, nor honor the person of the mighty. In righteousness, you shall judge your neighbor. You shall not go about as a talebearer among your people; nor shall you take a stand against the life of your neighbor; I am the Lord. (

New King James Version

, 1982, Leviticus 19:15-16)

Leviticus clarifies that those involved in criminal justice research should have no preconceived notions about individuals or subjects and that having such ideas would be an injustice.  Indeed, Nehemiah makes the point that folks who need to be helped have already suffered and that those entrusted to help them should not add to their burden or add hardship to them.

Yet now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children; and indeed, we are forcing our sons and our daughters to be slaves, and some of our daughters have been brought into slavery. It is not in our power to redeem them, for other men have our lands and vineyards. And I became very angry when I heard their outcry and these words. After serious thought, I rebuked the nobles and rulers and said to them, “Each of you is exacting usury from his brother.” So, I called a great assembly against them. (New King James Version, 1982, Nehemiah 5:5-7).

Indeed, even the officer on the street is bound by these conditions of not doing more harm. The concepts highlighted in the Bible can be seen through Supreme Court decisions such as

Tennessee v. Garner

when the Court ruled that deadly force can only be used if the officer making the arrest faces the threat of death or serious bodily injury (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985). In

Graham v. Connor

, the Court said that in any arrest, the force used must only be the amount necessary to make that arrest (Graham v. Connor, 1989). In both these cases, it is obvious the Court is following a Christian View in telling police that they cannot add to the harm and only do what is necessary to make an arrest. Whether practitioners or researchers do not harm is a required and ethical standard.

Chi-squared test with R programming

In this question, I have to write a few lines of code to do a chi_sq test comparing the proportion of overweight and cancer.

The prof has already written the codes for answering half of the question, I am required to write a few lines of code to load the csv file on my PC desk top, select data from the cancer column and run the test to get a p-value. This value is used to assess the null hypothesis:that overweight and cancer are not associated.

Details of the codes were provided and the output data are shown in italics. Please review and let me know if you could help. thanks.

Clash of co workers- Team work


Watch the video

“Clash of the Co-Workers”

by clicking the link below.


a) At the end of the video, pay attention to the 10 survey items: personal talkers, office cliques, use of cologne, cell phone junkies, enemies, lunch thieves, loud talkers, personal hygiene, snoops, and gossipers. Which among these 10 items are the

frequently occurred ones

and the

least occurred ones

in your workplace?

b) Choose

any two types of conflicts from the video

that happened in your workplace. Discuss the impact those conflicts can have on an organization.

c) As a manager, describe the strategies that you will adopt to manage those conflicts.


Research and Write : Teamwork

a) Select

one organization of your choice

and explain the efforts they are taking to improve teamwork.

b) Explain how diversity can improve team performance and hurt team performance from your work experience.


1. Format (follow the APA style,7th edition guidelines)

2. Assignment

a. Title page

b. Give a short introduction and conclusion to question 1 and 2.

c. The body of each answer should have a detailed explanation

d. No need to write the question, write the answers with the corresponding question numbers (Writing the questions will increase the similarity score)

e. References from outside (minimum five ) + course textbook = Total 6

2. Word limit: 1600-1700 words

a. From title page to references

3. Submission

a. Submit in the

Turnitin assignment area

in the 8rd week of the Moodle page


The deadline for submission

4. Similarity score


For this assignment similarity

above 20% will reduce marks

b. Please don’t copy as such from the references. Paraphrase and add citation to reduce similarity

c. The more you research the less would be your similarity score

d. Copying from old student’s assignment will increase your similarity score

e. Search for online journal articles from the library resources and other resources.

Clinical Skills Self-Assessment




Before embarking on any professional or academic activity, it is important to understand the background, knowledge, and experience you bring to it. You might ask yourself, “What do I


know? What do I


to know? And what do I


to know?” This critical self-reflection is especially important for developing clinical skills such as those for advanced practice nursing.

The PMHNP Clinical Skills List and PMHNP Clinical Skills Self-Assessment Form provided in the Learning Resources can be used to celebrate your progress throughout your practicum and identify skills gaps. The skills list covers all necessary skills you should demonstrate during your practicum experiences.

For this Assignment (just as you did in PRAC 6645), you assess where you are now in your clinical skill development and make plans for this practicum. Specifically, you will identify strengths and opportunities for improvement regarding the required practicum skills. In this practicum experience, when developing your goals and objectives, be sure to keep assessment and diagnostic reasoning in mind. As you complete your self-assessment this week, you may wish to look back over your self-assessments from prior practicums to reflect on your growth.

To Prepare

  • Review the clinical skills in the PMHNP Clinical Skills List document. It is recommended that you print out this document to serve as a guide throughout your practicum.
  • Review the “Developing SMART Goals” resource on how to develop goals and objectives that follow the SMART framework.
  • Review the resources on nursing competencies and nursing theory, and consider how these inform your practice.
  • Download the PMHNP Clinical Skills Self-Assessment Form to complete this Assignment.

The Assignment

Use the PMHNP Clinical Skills Self-Assessment Form to complete the following:

  • Rate yourself according to your confidence level performing the skills identified in the Clinical Skills Self-Assessment Form.
  • Based on your ratings, summarize your strengths and opportunities for improvement.
  • Based on your self-assessment and theory of nursing practice, develop three to four (3–4) measurable goals and objectives for this practicum experience. Include them on the designated area of the form.